Academic journal article Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri

Factors Related to Instructional Leadership Perception and Effect of Instructional Leadership on Organizational Variables: A Meta-Analysis

Academic journal article Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri

Factors Related to Instructional Leadership Perception and Effect of Instructional Leadership on Organizational Variables: A Meta-Analysis

Article excerpt

It has been placed a great emphasis on leadership skills of school principals associated with research on effective schools since the end of 1970s. Leadership skills of a school principal have been considered as one of the main factors on school effectiveness. As a result, a transition from school principalship to school leader has become an important issue. In this light, instructional leadership has come into the picture as a new conceptualization of leadership with regard to school principals. Instructional leadership of school principals has been identified as the skills, which principals directly show or enable the others to show in order to increase the achievement level of students in schools (De Bevoise, 1984). Related literature about school administration has described instructional leadership skills of school principals in various aspects and dimensions (Daresh & Ching-Jen, 1995; Hallinger & Murphy, 1985; Vildly & Dimmock, 1993). Research has indicated that there has been a close relationship between instructional leadership skills of school principals and school outputs, student achievement, and restructuring of schools (Chance, 1991; Duke, 1987; Hallinger & Murphy, 1990). On the other hand, it has been found that these instructional leadership skills have also to some extent related to personal and contextual factors (Cooke, 1995; Gulledge, 1995; Wildly & Dimmock, 1993).

Dimensions of Instructional Leadership Skills of School Principals

There has been some classification of instructional leadership skills of school principals in the related literature. These classifications mainly consist of identifying and defining the school visions, missions and goals, building consensus about school goals, providing the necessary resources for teaching, coordination, management, control and evaluation of teaching and curriculum, monitoring evaluating and developing the staff, creating close relationship and cooperation between staff, regular teaching-learning climate, enabling the support from society and environment, being a role model and teaching source (Andrews & Soder, 1987; Blank, 1987; Daresh & Ching-Jen, 1985; DeBevoise, 1984; Hallinger & Murphy, 1985, l986; Heck, Larsen, & Marcoulides, 1990; Krug, 1992; Reed, Krysinski, Gougeon, & Furman, 1988; Wildly & Dimmock, 1993).

The skills in question in this research consisted of five dimensions that are stated in the following: (i) Identifying and sharing school goals, (ii) Management of instructional programmes and teaching process, (iii) Evaluation of teaching process and students, (iv) Supporting and developing teachers, (v) Creating a safety learning climate and work environment.

Identifying and sharing school goals. it is expected from a school principal playing a leading role in identifying school goals by initially determining school vision and mission. The importance of school goals need to be emphasized, explained and shared during the meetings with students, teachers and parents.

Management of instructional programmes and teaching process. One of the main inputs of school is programmes. In order to successfully implement such programmes, necessary conditions and maximum learning opportunities need to be prepared. In successful schools, school principals have a pivotal role in planning, implementing and coordinating of programmes.

Evaluation of teaching process and students. This dimension involves teaching, inspection, evaluation of programmes, monitoring and evaluating student development. School principal should discuss and provide feedback about the teaching process and results of student evaluation with the school staff. Also, s/he needs to make use of the results in determining the success level of school and programmes goals.

Supporting and developing teachers. One of the main responsibilities of the school principal is to help every people in the school develop their professional qualifications, also, to enable teachers make use of these new knowledge and qualifications in the school. …

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