Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

How Mass Media Frames the Mega Sporting Event:the Case of the 17th Incheon Asian Games 2014

Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

How Mass Media Frames the Mega Sporting Event:the Case of the 17th Incheon Asian Games 2014

Article excerpt

Introduction

The Asian Games, also known as Asiad, is the second biggest multi-sports event following the Olympic Games. According to the China Central Television (CCTV) (2011), more than 847 million audience watched the 16th Guangzhou Asian Games 2010 (China) on television and more recently, the 17th Incheon Asian Games 2014 (S. Korea) brought more than 20,000 participants, comprised of 13,000 athletes and team officials from 45 Asian nations (Olympic Council of Asia, 2014). In addition, with enormous public's interest and attention on mega sporting events and their possibility of generating tangible and intangible externalities (i.e., impacts), governmental and public authorities often discuss to seek hosting mega sporting events like the Olympic Games, the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) World Cup, or the Asian Games (Lee & Krohn, 2013). Within this context that hosting a mega sporting event possibly confer positive or negative externalities to the host city and/or nation which is a contentious issue among many parties including public, the role of mass media becomes a platform which might influence public's opinion because mass media tends to exert certain beliefs and values over people by applying structured media framing (Croteau & Hoynes, 2000; Holtzman, 2000; Lee, Kim, & Love, 2014). As Delaney and Eckstein (2008) stated, media has influential power to magnify certain important social issues. In fact, while the issue of hosting mega sporting events has become a popular research topic which tends to focus on only economic or other social and psychological impacts (e.g., Bob & Swart, 2009; Crompton, 2004), there has been a dearth of research on the framing of hosting mega sporting events in media coverage. Thus, given the controversial issues of hosting mega sporting events and the importance of media framing, the current study was to build the knowledge by examining how the 17th Incheon Asian Games 2014 has been framed in newspaper coverage.

Media's role of hosting mega sporting events

Hosting mega sporting events can bring some positive externalities to the host country; thus, many countries, especially nations under a developing process, chose to host mega sporting events (Matheson & Baade, 2004). To win a bid to host the event, media plays a critical role, and it has three major roles. First, media can affects residents' perceptions of hosting a mega sporting event (Ritchie, Shipway, & Cleeve, 2009). The general public's perception in regards to hosting a mega sporting event is highly related with success or failure of the event. For this reason, many political strategies are employed to create positive perceptions in general public to host mega sporting events (Lockstone & Baum, 2009). On the other hand, media can also create negative perceptions toward hosting mega sporting events. For example, the limited media coverage has enough power to create a stereotype or negative image of event (Mishra, 2012). For this reason, fostering general public's positive perception of hosting a mega sporting event through media coverage is one of the most important roles of media.

Second, media can be used as a tool for promoting the host city of a mega sporting event (Jago, Dwyer, Lipman, &Vorster, 2010). For the host countries of mega sporting events, promoting their countries as a tourism destination is a significant objective of hosting mega sporting events. Therefore, these host countries or cities make a huge effort to promote themselves, and media is being utilized as a significant tool for promotion. This promotion effort through media might generate positive economic benefits because media attracts tourists to the host country of the mega sporting event (Kavetsos & Szymanski, 2010). In addition, media provides opportunities to the host country for changing its negative or stereotypical image (Pillay & Bass, 2008). Countries under the developing process are usually exposed in media because of wars, national disasters, and social injustices (Mishra, 2012). …

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