Academic journal article Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal

Comparison between Kuwaiti and Egyptian Teachers in Type A Behavior and Job Satisfaction: A Cross-Cultural Study

Academic journal article Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal

Comparison between Kuwaiti and Egyptian Teachers in Type A Behavior and Job Satisfaction: A Cross-Cultural Study

Article excerpt

This study investigates the differences between males and females on the one hand, and between Egyptian and Kuwaiti teachers on the other. It also aims to examine the correlation between Type A behavior and job satisfaction. The sample consists of 406 teachers (109 females and 279 males; 253 Kuwaiti, 153 Egyptian). Tools used in this study are: Scales of Type A behavior (Abdel-Khalek & Chukry, 1991), job satisfaction (Cooper, Sloan, & Williams, 1998). Results reveal that there are no significant differences between males and females in Type A behavior, however there are significant differences between males and females in job satisfaction, organization structure, and satisfaction of organizational process. Results also reveal a significant difference between Kuwaiti and Egyptian teachers in the research variables. In addition to the above, results indicate significant positive correlations between Type A behavior and job satisfaction.

Coronary heart disease is considered as one of the chief factors responsible for an increasing number of deaths, especially in developing countries (Al-Khader, 1999). This trend is more prevalent among blue-collar workers and professionals. Recent research generally supports this idea. (Byrne & Reinhart, 1989). Several studies have shown the possibility of using Type A behavior as a predictor or indicator for coronary heart disease (Lichtenstein, Pedersen, & Plomin, 1989). There are numerous psychological characteristics for high rate patients on Type A behavior scales.

An examination of the psychological literature shows that the Type A behavior has three main components, which are: 1 - Competitiveness and achievement striving, 2 - Impatience and time urgency, and 3 - Hostility and aggressiveness.

Type A behavior has been defined as an active and complex emotion which includes behavioral aptitudes such as: muscle tension, excitation, quick speech and concentration, an accelerated rate of activities and emotional responses such as excitement or aggressive infuriation, and the increase of probability of anger (Rosenman, 1990). Studies have proved that individuals with Type A behavior show good quality in work performance, and that they are more successful and have more professional performance compared with Type B individuals (Helmreich, Spence, & Pred, 1988; Wright, 1988). Finally, individuals with Type A behavior excel those of Type B behavior in jobs including miscellaneous tasks (Lee & Gillen, 1989; Nahavandi, Mizzi, & Malekzadeh, 1992).

Individuals with Type A behavior share the same features, including vigorous competitiveness, intrepidity, ambition, courage, need to achieve, excessive stimulation, feeling of time stress and its urgency, anger, aggression, hostility, impatience, instability, and the capability of performing several activities at the same time. All these features might lead to coronary heart disease. Numerous studies have concluded that the characteristics of persons with a high degree of Type A reflect on their job performance. Their desire to be - and their insistence on being - dominant are the most significant motives, which distinguish them from others. Furthermore, it is unlikely that they would delegate their authorities; rather they are always willing to take over the duties of others, even if their work colleagues are highly competent. This is why they continually complain about their increased workload - thus they engage in two contradictory activities (Hasan, 1998; Smith & Rhodewalt, 1986; Strube & Werner, 1985).

Recent studies (Adams & Jax, 1997) indicate that Type A behavior can be categorized into two major factors, namely achievement striving, and impatience and irritability. When work is free from challenge, then little effort is required to be exerted by Type A behavior in performing the work. But when work is challenging, then they exert a great deal of energy. Studies by Lee and Gillen (1989) and Jamal (1985) revealed that Type A behavior individuals are distinctive in their desire for achievement, feeling of time pressure and in conducting a lot of activities at one time, however, the amount of work achieved by them is not more than that achieved by Type B behavior. …

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