Academic journal article Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict

Gender Stereotypes, Mass Media and Migrants

Academic journal article Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict

Gender Stereotypes, Mass Media and Migrants

Article excerpt

INTRODUCTION

Feature of the European world and the Middle East relations is shown in traditions, collective and historical memory, opens through a cultural trauma. Research of gender stereotypes in the context of migratory crisis is closely connected with conceptualization of such concepts as "historical memory", "collective memory" (Halbwax M., 2007, p.348; Confino A.,1997, p. 1386; Erll A., 2010. p. 1; Manier D., Hirst W. A, 2008, p. 253; Olick J.K., 2008, p. 23 ; Russell N., 2006, p. 792; Schacter D.L., Gutchess A.H. & Kensinger E.A., 2009, p. 83). The French historian P. Nora introduces the concept "place of memory" for scientific use. He carries the museums, books, archives, people, traditions, songs, buildings, geographical places to the spiritual or material places capable to keep and cause collective memoirs - everything that has "symbolical aura" and allows society to make idea of itself and the history (Veltser X., 2005).

The historian of religion and culture Y. Assman allocates the main signs of collective memory: relevancy to specific time and space, correlation with specific group and the recreating nature of collective memory. "Identification specifics" is common to collective memory - collective memory is memory of a real social group. It recreates the past and "organizes experience" the present and future (Pierre N.,2005). These theses of Assman are especially important for understanding the situation of modern migratory process to the countries of the European Union.

Analyzing condition of the modern migratory crisis participants according to messages in mass media, all of us are more inclined to diagnosing a cultural trauma. This concept is closely connected with the concept of collective memory. In development of the cultural trauma concept the significant role was played by works of the Polish researcher P. Shtompki (Assman A., 2014, p. 8). "The cultural trauma" is understood as a collective phenomenon, the state endured by a group, a community or society as a result of destructive events. The scientist allocates the following stages of describing traumatic sequence:

1. favorable structural and cultural prerequisites for causing trauma;

2. traumatic situations or events;

3. special methods of definition, interpretation or interpretation of traumatic events by means of the inherited cultural resources;

4. traumatic symptoms, meaning certain schemes of behavior and attitude (all the divided examples of behavior and the commonly accepted opinions);

5. post-traumatic adaptation;

6. Overcoming the trauma.

The cultural trauma can be more or less painful, and it depends on two important conditions: gap sizes between the habitual organized environment and conditions caused by traumatic events and degrees of the sphere scope of basic values, rules and main expectations (Shtompka P., 2001, p.6).

The categorization of values, forms of behavior, experience of the previous generations on the basis of gender takes place and is encouraged in any culture. In any culture the role of man and woman is looked differently upon and play different roles (Shevtsova A. A., 2011). Genders find polar values: positive - negative. In case of assessing "foreign" culture value of gender strongly depends on difference degree between the personal outlook and the point of view of the others.

Significant factor of the distinctions existing between the countries in preference of gender stereotypes is the religion. Female stereotypes are more favorable in those countries whose traditions include worship of deities and female Saints and where women are allowed to participate in religious ceremonies (Azhgikhina N., 2000).

The Koran defines the attitude towards the woman most categorically, comprehensively interfering in the family and marriage relations and describing gender roles (Rzayeva S. V., 2015. No. 395). Female fidelity, chastity, obedience - all this is part of education of the woman, it is determined by accommodation conditions, clothes, system of punishments. …

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