Academic journal article Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict

Russian Method of Training in Crafts: Forming Professional Education in Russia (the Second Half of XIX - the Beginning of the 20th Century)

Academic journal article Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict

Russian Method of Training in Crafts: Forming Professional Education in Russia (the Second Half of XIX - the Beginning of the 20th Century)

Article excerpt


Developing system of innovative vocational training is directed to training the highly skilled workers providing positive changes in area of professional activity, and finally in economy and the social sphere of Russia. Finding of an optimum combination between basic professional education and its practice-oriented component was always relevant [1]. Training the specialist having broad fundamental knowledge and professional competences allowing to use them in the professional activity during creating new products, materials - one of the problems causing discussions in the academic environment and among employers [2].

The historical experience comprehensive analysis of developing vocational training is necessary for the successful problem resolution. Therefore reconsideration of the available historical experience is of particular importance.


Authors used special and historical research methods. The synchronistic method has allowed establishing the general signs for the uniform processes of forming craft education proceeding in various cities and regions. The problem and chronological method is applied in the analysis of the legislative base regulating activity of educational institutions of professional education system.


Industrial revolution and the begun industrialization in the second half of the 19th century promoted emergence of new types of educational institutions. In 1883 in case of Scientific committee of the Ministry of National Education the Department on Technical and Professional Education was founded. On March 7, 1888 Alexander III approved Regulations on industrial schools. The Ministries of Public Education, finance, internal affairs and state-owned properties have determined counties and provinces where first of all technical and professional educational institutions were necessary [3]. According to the document, in Russia middle and primary technical schools, craft schools began to be established.

Entering the middle technical schools required the certificate of the 5 classes training in a middle educational institution; in primary - the certificate of city, district or two-class rural school; in craft - the certificate on graduating from primary, parish or city parish school. Middle technical schools trained in such specialties as mechanical, chemical, construction, agricultural, mining; primary - construction, mechanical, chemical; craft - mechanical (on handling wood and metal). Qualification of the graduate of middle technical schools were - the technician, the assistant to the engineer; primary - the head of workers in industrial institutions; vocational schools gave skills training to acceptances of a certain production.

When opening technical schools considerable financial resources were necessary, shortage of specialists and teachers was felt. In 1895 trustees of educational districts began to open evening and Sunday schools in special subjects, the special attention were paid to drawing and painting. Nicholas II's decree in case of the Kazan teacher's institute has founded on January 29, 1896 a position of the manual work teacher for education and training competent heads of manual work [4, page 10].

In the nineties of the 19th century in Russia process of creating organizations of professional education was legally regulated. The organization of teaching and educational process in vocational schools was defined by "A provision on primary craft schools" (1889), "A provision on schools of craft students" (1893), school charters. These documents became the legal framework of developing craft education in Russia, determined the purpose of schools, specifics and needs of the region were considered. Within 3 years students got primary education, studied craft acceptances and skills. Later the fourth (practical) class has been entered, students began to do practical training, fixing craft skills.

In 1897 in the Kazan educational district the Kazan industrial school was founded (the joint middle chemical and primary with three specialties: mechanical, chemical and construction), Saratov joint mechanic-and-chemical and technical school, the Nizhny Novgorod mechanical school, in 1901 - Vyatka agricultural technical school. …

Search by... Author
Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed


An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.