Academic journal article Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict

The Institutionalization of Social Exclusion in the Structuration of Modern Society (on Example of Drug Addicts)

Academic journal article Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict

The Institutionalization of Social Exclusion in the Structuration of Modern Society (on Example of Drug Addicts)

Article excerpt

INTRODUCTION

In the theory of structuration by E.Giddens continuous interaction of social actors and institutes which form social structure is indicated. Rutinization of individual activity plays a key role in formation of social structure steady elements. Sharing opinion of the American sociologists S. Barli and P. Tolbert (Stephen R. Barley, 1997, p.93), we will note that in the theory of structuration processes of institutionalization are substantially ignored that complicates interpretation of a number of processes. However studying institutionalization processes allows to disclose complexity of social structure and social system mechanisms formation.

Sharing belief of scientists about possibility of studying the discriminated social groups separated from the general social stream through a prism of the social exclusion concept and the theory of structuration, the author in this work realizes own approach, synthesizing concepts of social exclusion (Lenoir R., 1989; Rodgers G., 1995.; de Haan A., 1997), theories of structuration of E. Giddens (Giddens, A., 1984) and concept of institutionalization (6. Stephen R. Barley, Pamela S., 1997, p. 93; Burns T., Flam H., 1987). The Poliparadigmal context of social exclusion allowed to expand gnoseological opportunities of the social exclusion theory and to detail mechanisms and procedures of social exclusion / inclusion.

By means of the institutional analysis complexity of social structure formation mechanisms reveals. Analyzing this phenomenon in the context of the institutionalization theory, the social exclusion can be considered as process of which multilevel social exclusion is result. There are various levels of exclusion, and the social actor can "move" from one level to another during various periods of time. Process of social exclusion, being private process of institutionalization, logically speaks from a position of the institutional theory. Social actions and institutes communicate by means of scenarios realized in acts, program documents, documentary sources of public organizations (for example, programs of re-socialization and so forth) and "are played" in the field of social action.

The model of social exclusion institutionalization can be built in two-dimensional system of coordinates: time and space, and it also have multilevel character. The process of social exclusion institutionalization proceeding from macro-level, fixed at the level of the organizations and in the form of scenarios, the majority of which are stated in regulations, and "falling" by micro-level. "Authors" of scenarios (the schematical action plans for certain temporary conditions) are: legislators (scenarios register in regulations), performers in the organizations (scenarios can be formed both oral, and written, in the form of the defined, fixed behavioral schemes concerning socially excluded individuals and groups). However in the Russian reality, the institutionalization of social inclusion is initiated at the micro-level, according to requirements of the deprived groups and public organizations. Human rights organizations, groups and individuals, not indifferent to problems of socially excluded groups, direct the activity to changing scenarios, for example, by giving legislative, social and social-and-political initiatives. Change of scenarios brings in result to change of key strategy.

There are several approaches which explain process of various levels interrelation. L. Tsuker empirically proves that institutional changes first of all happen at the level of the organizations (Zucker L.G., 1991); S. Barli and P. Tolbert combine neo-institutionalism and the theory of structuration and consider features of institutionalization in the organizations (Tolbert P. S., 1988. p. 101), linguistic aspects of institutionalization are in detail considered by P. Berger and T. Lukman (Berger P., Lukman T., 1995). However an important role in understanding of institutionalization process is played by standard and regulatory and cultural approaches. …

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