Academic journal article Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict

Dialectics in Understanding Comic Text Contradictions by Children

Academic journal article Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict

Dialectics in Understanding Comic Text Contradictions by Children

Article excerpt

INTRODUCTION

The researches devoted to such aspects of humor as the stages of development of children's humor (McGhee 1983), relation of cognitive development and humor understanding (Shcherbakova 2009), humor therapy (Rengade 2014) are intensively conducted in psychology. Humorous reaction of children is caused by actions that are unexpected or do not correspond to the developing cognitive schemes of a child (Piaget 2001). Laughter arises in response to the event unexpected or containing discrepancy which corresponds to the cognitive level of a child, but it is not consistent with his developing schemes according to Sroufe & Wunsch (1972), van Oers (2012), Bainum, (1984). Children tend to laugh at objects or events that do not correspond to their existing schemes (Martin, 2003, 2006). Influence of cognitive development on the perception and humor understanding is presented in the researches of McGhee (1983). Tasks with the comic content are particularly difficult for children, and it is possible to understand them only if there is discrepancy or contradiction in terms of statement (Artemyeva 2014, 2015; Shcherbakova 2009, Akhmetzyanova 2014; Kholodnaya, 2004). It is necessary to go beyond formal logic, to operate with the relations of oppositions (Luk 1968). Dialectical thinking which is able to reveal the reality contradictions as an internal source of a change and development is involved in the process of transformation of the problem and conflicting situations. Researches of N.E. Veraksa (2006, 2007, 2010, 2011), L.F. Bayanova (2013), IB. Shiyan (2011) revealed that the basis of the mechanism of dialectical thinking is operating with the relations of oppositions: transformation, mediation, dialectical transition, reversion, integration, alternatives change for which respectively stands some dialectical thinking action. The purpose of this action is to define its opposite. Action of integration is directed on establishing the opposites, that is, first of all mutually exclusive tendencies. Dialectical action of mediation aims at finding unity only within which contrasts can exist. Dialectical seriation action enters the temporary coordinate. The reversion action represents the transition, but is made in the opposite direction, that is, the ordering of events succession is performed from the one opposite, that was once the final. The alternatives change action characterizes the transition from one couple of opposites to another (Veraksa 2006).

Research Question

The basis of the mechanism of dialectical thinking is operating with the relations of oppositions, transformation of problem and conflicting situations in which a child establishes existence of mutually exclusive properties and relations. We assumed that dialectical actions will be involved in understanding contradictions and discrepancies of comic tasks. This research is directed on identification of the actions of dialectical thinking involved in creation and understanding comic stories by children of preschool and primary school age.

METHODS

Participants

123 children took part in experiment, including 78 children aged 5 to 7 years (35 boys and 43 girls) and 45 children aged 8 to 10 years (24 boys and 21 girls). Children attend preschool and school educational institutions.

Materials

Children aged 5-7 were offered to create and tell a funny story. If children had difficulties, they were offered to remember a funny story or action from movies, cartoons or life.

The Coping Humor Scale (CHS)

The coping humor scale is developed by R. Martin and Lefkort (1996) (T.V. Artemyeva' adaptation) and intended for measurement of the degree of humor use by people.

The Subtest "Successive Pictures" by D. Wexler

Humorous component is deliberately built into the test tasks. It is necessary to understand a humorous implied sense of a picture and how it transforms the meaning of the story in order to give the correct interpretation of the drawn situations. …

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