Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Defensive Systems during the Men's European University Beach Volleyball Championship

Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Defensive Systems during the Men's European University Beach Volleyball Championship

Article excerpt

Introduction

Both defensive and offensive systems are a fundamental part of the sporting success of a team since the tactical decisions determine the development of the game and lead a team to the victory or defeat.

In recent years, researchers have focused on the development of computer systems and tracking technologies to analyze, evaluate and detect game systems because detecting patterns of play is difficult to perform. Several studies have used tools to evaluate the game, one based on the use of video (Link, 2014; Tilp, Koch, Stifter, & Ruppert, 2006) and another to develop standards-based data mining analysis (Zhang, Zhao, & Wu, 2006). Other research has investigated the development of technology for tracking moving objects such as balls, with the support of photogrammetry 2D (Gomez, Herrera López, Link, & Eskofier, 2014; Jlassi, Douik, & Messaoud, 2012), as well as with 3D photogrammetry (Chen, Tsai, Lee, & Yu, 2012). These studies have provided teams with the strategies and tactics of the game through ball movements analyzed using these systems.

The interpretation and reading of the game are related to different variables that influence the players, both directly and indirectly. There is a relationship between the success of the athlete and the experience in performing various technical actions: in senior categories (García-Alcaraz, Palao, & Ortega, 2014; Moreno Arroyo, Moreno Dominguez, Urea Espa, & Garcia Gonzalez, 2008; Palao & Ortega, 2015; Palao & Ureña, 2004), and junior categories (Medeiros, Marcelino, Mesquita, & Manuel Palao, 2014). This dependence is related to the position of the players during the game, because both a good position and reading of the opposite game facilitate the successful completion of technical actions and help establish a tactical foundation (Chen, 2014). Not only the set of technical measures provides a tactical game model, but also there are technical elements, like the serve that, by themselves, constitute the beginning of the tactics and strategy of a team. These actions can modulate the types of serve (Jimenez Olmedo, Penichet Tomas, Saiz Colomina, Martinez Carbonell, & Jove Tossi, 2012) their speed (Gea & Molina, 2013) and the player who receive the serve.

Moreover, displacement of players, widely studied becomes one of the pillars of the tactics of the game, and it is subject to the playing surface. In the case of beach volleyball, sand difficulties movements (Bishop, 2003; Giatsis, Kollias, Panoutsakopoulos, & Papaiakovou, 2004; Smith, 2006) represents an increase in the workload (Magalhaes, Inacio, Oliveira, Ribeiro, & Ascensao, 2011) and influences directly the technical elements that athletes should carry out (Ricarte, Freire, & Oliveira, 2008).

Professional teams selected high-blockers accompanied by shorter defenders, which is valid for both men (Tili & Giatsis, 2011) and women (Giatsis, Tili, & Zetou, 2011). This difference is related to the specialization by playing position, because in teams where roles changed there is no such differentiation (Palao, Gutierrez, & Frideres, 2008). Consequently, according to the literature that states that the tactical roles are set depending on the physical capacity of the players (Palao, Valadés, Manzanares, & Ortega, 2014), the optimal game model assumes the combination of high-blocker and lower but agile defender (Kim, Yusof, Lam, Fauzee, & Kwong, 2012).

Despite the specific literature on game tactics, it is only possible to find a research that evaluates in detail play systems in women's beach volleyball (Seweryniak, Mroczek, & Lukasik, 2013). However, tactical development evolves like the game does, because players are adapting to game conditions. Therefore, game systems should be evaluated in relation to the development of the set or game, as a means of supplementary information to the analysis of the performance. …

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