Academic journal article South Asian Studies

FATA Needs Radical Reforms in FATA Administration in Order to Include in Mainstream of Pakistan's State

Academic journal article South Asian Studies

FATA Needs Radical Reforms in FATA Administration in Order to Include in Mainstream of Pakistan's State

Article excerpt

Introduction

The role of North West Frontier is outstanding in the history of Indio-Pakistan because of its geographical position. It was also important geographically for the British Indian government. It was included in the British constituted provinces, situated between 69 and 74 east longitude the greatest length of the Province was 15408 miles and, it greatest breadth 279 miles. The total area of the region is approximately 39, 000 square miles and in its North lay the Hindu Kush, to the South Baluchistan and the a district of South Punjab; Kashmir, the Punjab lay East of it and Afghanistan to its West. The district Hazara and some area of Kohistan region are called Cis-Indus, while other province was trans-Indus.

The province had a double boundary: one administrative and the other political. The former distincts the five administrative regions from the Tribal area and spreads toward mountains. The boundary from Afghanistan to Indian borders is called the Durand Line. The middle area of these two boundaries was and still is - occupied by Pathan Tribal.

The province had two political divisions: the five administered units known as districts, i.e., Hazara, Peshawar, Kohat, Bannu and Dera Ismail Khan having total area about 13,419 square miles; and the Tribal territory with five political agencies the Malakand, the Khyber, the Kurram, Northern and Southern Wazirstan, and five Tribal areas. The Malakand Agency included the Frontier Chieftainships of Chitral, Dir and Nawagai. The Tribal territory consisted of an area of 25,00 square miles.

The North West Frontier province presents an extreme and complex view because of its physical features. The Cis-Indus District of Hazara is one of three main geographical divisions. It is extending North-Eastwards into the Himalayas ranges. Its north side is hilly while southern part of the region consisted on the green fertile lands. The area from north to south is a narrow strip between the Indus and the hills, consisted on the four districts of Peshawar, Kohat, Bannu and Dera Ismail Khan. Then there is tribal territory between above districts and the Afghan Frontier formed the third division containing a terrain, rugged, rocky and wild with lofty mountains and between them deep, narrow and inaccessible valleys. Then, the Agency, i.e., Swat, Dir and Chitral situated between the border areas of Peshawar and the Hindu Kush ranges. However, the area is not much fertile and suitable for the agricultural production. The fertile lands of Dir, Bajaur and Swat including Panjkora Rivers are situated in the south of Chitral. The barren hills of Mohmand are stretched on the South-Western sides of Malakand Agency. Furthermore, the narrow gorge of Khyber Pass was liked Jamrud from its southern side, on Peshawar border with the Eastern side of Afghanistan at Landi Khana still further south Lay Tirah, the home of the Afridis Orakzais. The Kurram Agency, a fertile valley, lies to the Western side of Khyber Agency and in west of Khyber Agency and spreads towards the Sikaram and the Peiwar Kotal Passes to the western end of Miranzai valley of Kohat District. It could be seen the mountainous region of Wazirstan, the Tochi valley and the plain of Wana. The Wazir hills joined another mountain range, the Sulaimans, which dominated the Derajat.

There are some important passes in the North Western hills of the Province. These passes from many centuries are using as the routes of invasions and the trade between Central Asian and the regions of South Asia. The strategic and political importance of this province also increased because of the passes. The Khyber Pass is an important and famous way of communication between Afghanistan and South Asia if is also situated in the South of Hindu Kush ranges. There are seven semi autonomous agencies, i.e. Bajaur, Mohmand, Khyber, Orakzais, Kurram, and North and South Wazirstan. In 19th century, this tribal area remains a battlefield due to advances made by Imperial power. …

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