Academic journal article South Asian Studies

KASHMIR: A Conflict between India and Pakistan

Academic journal article South Asian Studies

KASHMIR: A Conflict between India and Pakistan

Article excerpt


India's efforts to integrate Kashmir into Indian Union did not succeed because the major Kashmiri leaders and parties resisted these efforts. The Kashmiris want that they should themselves decide about their political future, as committed to them by the UN Resolutions of 1948-49. Indian leadership contests this and use force to crush this demand. This has caused a perpetual conflict between the Indian authorities and the people of Kashmir. India has been using security establishment to control Kashmir which often resulted in human rights violations in Kashmir. Indian actions are driven by the consideration of keeping Kashmir under its control irrespective of the human rights or other cost. The excessive use of security forces and state power by India has the Kashmir Valley into a "Human Tragedy."

The Indian government use security forces and intelligence establishment to subdue Kashmirs. The Kashmiri people want freedom from India and decide their political future on their own. This is not acceptable to India and it use force to control Kashmiris.

We remember the statement of Sardar Patel, who said, "give Jinnah his state, it would not survive in five years, the Muslim league would be knocking at their door begging for India's reunification" (Collins & Lapierre, 2011).

The interview of Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah in "Daliy Hamdard" about Kashmir situation on Feb 3, 1946 is very important and relevant to this article. He said:-

"Although I am fully occupied with the British Indian elections just now yet I have not forgotten the problems of Kashmir he said, I am fully conscious of the suffering of the people there and that though the burden of the struggle against repression and oppression was mainly to be born by the people of Kashmir, we shall always help them in every possible way..." (Collins & Lapierre, 2011). He also said; "In search of an inventive approach to untangle the Kashmir Knot, the 'merit of the case' was not a good starting point. Firstly, we might not agree on the merit: we did not for over six decades. Secondly, and more importantly: complex issues are not resolved by providing one or the other side wrong, but by identifying common causes that can be pursued together" (Murshed, 2014).

Geographical and Historical Background

The state of Jammu and Kashmir comprises the regions of Kashmir valley, Jammu and Ladakh with approximately 10 million people. According to S.M Burke and Salim-ud-Din Quraishi, the population figure of Jammu and Kashmir State on the eve of transfer of power, were as under:

The Jamrnu and Kashmir conflict dates back to the partition of the subcontinent in 1947. The first India-Pakistan war over Kashmir soon after the independence resulted in the division of the territory into Indian held "Jammu and Kashmir (comprises the regions of Kashmir valley, Jammu and Ladakh) and the smaller area with Pakistan (Azad Kashmir plus sparsely populated regions in the High Himalayas known as Pakistan's Northern Areas" now designated as Gilgit Baltistan. (Imperial Gazatteer of Kashmir and Jammu, 2002).

The dividing line between Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas and Indian administered Kashmir originated in a Cease Fire line in 1949 under the UN Resolutions. It was marginally altered during Indo- Pakistan 1971 and renamed as the Line of Control (L°C) under the India Pakistan agreement signed at Simla in July 1972.

Both India and Pakistan have contesting claims of sovereignty over the territory of Jammu and Kashmir. They both raised their claims at the UN and also the fight for the Kashmir several times in the past. The majority of the population of the Kashmir is now fed up with this dispute and some of them also want to see Kashmir as an independent state.

The problems between India and Pakistan are very largely a legacy of their histories including the histories of Indian and Pakistani nationalism. The Indian nationalism advocated a secular, pluralist India where all religions should co-exist. …

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