Academic journal article Contemporary Nurse : a Journal for the Australian Nursing Profession

A Meta-Analysis of the Variables Related to Job Satisfaction among Korean Nurses

Academic journal article Contemporary Nurse : a Journal for the Australian Nursing Profession

A Meta-Analysis of the Variables Related to Job Satisfaction among Korean Nurses

Article excerpt

Introduction

Although the demand for and utilization of healthcare services have increased annually in Korea, the supply of nurses is not sufficient to meet the demand. For instance, the total number of hospital beds per 1000 Population is 8.8 in Korea, which is 3.9 hospital beds more than the 4.9 average hospital beds of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. However, the number of working nurses is 4.6 per 1000 Population in Korea, which is significantly lower than the 9.3 average practicing nurses per 1000 Population of OECD countries (Ministry of Health & Welfare, 2012). This trend is increasing gradually because of aging and nursing workforce retirees. Also, these conditions are also causing medical problems due to the shortage of nursing workforce in domestic medical institutions (Kim & Seomun, 2013). In addition, most of the current nursing staff are under excessive job load and stress due to the increase in the number of healthcare beneficiaries (Do & Kim, 2012). This has a negative impact on job satisfaction and organizational turnover among nurses, which appears to be a threat to public health (Do & Kim, 2012). To overcome this problem, since 2008, the government has reinforced the number of Colleges of Nursing and their students. In the nursing body, nursing leaders seem to be sensitive due to a much higher turnover rate of 12.7% of nursing staff compared to the total turnover rate of 2.16% of healthcare personnel, and are searching for solutions (Jeong et al., 2011). Also, in medical facilities, there are promotions through a variety of programs from recruitment and training of new nurses to a hospital nurses' career ladder management to retain current nurses for as long as possible within the nursing workforce population.

In previous studies, job satisfaction was the most important variable to explore evidence to suggest solutions for improving the working rate of nursing staff, and many studies have been performed to identify factors related to job satisfaction. In the findings of previous studies, factors such as organizational commitment, job satisfaction, leadership, professional selfconcept, organizational characteristics, attitude of the nursing profession, turnover intention, attitude towards transfer of work, role performance, role cognition, self-concept, self-esteem, autonomy, position, job, salary, promotion, welfare, and nurse-physician collaboration, and their relationships have been studied (Gong & Son, 2012; Jeong et al., 2011; Oh, Sung, & Kim, 2011). However, quantitative integration of previous research findings and meta-analysis of the results is necessary for finding solutions due to a shortage of nursing workforce. Therefore, meta-analysis of individual research findings is needed so that practical problem-solving directions can be presented in a nursing work environment (Oh, 2002).

Blegen (1993) reported that among the 15,048 studies published between 1977 and 1991, a meta-analysis of 48 studies showed the highest negative correlation between job satisfaction and job stress, and the highest positive correlation between job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Irvine and Evans (1995) reported that the highest negative correlation was between job satisfaction and turnover action, and the highest positive correlation was between turnover intention and turnover action. Zangaro and Soeken (2007) reported that among the 1601 articles published between 1991 and 2003, a meta-analysis of 31 studies showed the highest negative correlation between job satisfaction and job stress, and moderate level of correlation between job satisfaction and nurse-physician collaboration and autonomy among registered nurses working in staff positions.

In Korea, Ahn (2000) analyzed 80 studies about job satisfaction among nurses published between 1972 and 1997, but the study only presented a narrative about job satisfaction trends and characteristics of the studies; therefore, there were limitations to integrate individual studies by applying statistical techniques. …

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