Academic journal article Indian Journal of Positive Psychology

Passion Types and Subjective Well-Being for Saudi Women: Exploratory Study

Academic journal article Indian Journal of Positive Psychology

Passion Types and Subjective Well-Being for Saudi Women: Exploratory Study

Article excerpt

The type of the engagement in performed activity might play an important role in subjective well-being (SWB). For example, with old adults, the engagement in favorite activities was related positively to SWB, while practicing a non-favorite activities was unrelatedto SWB (Reich, Zautra, & Hill, 1987). Numerous studies have given experimental support which proved the positive relationship between engagement in activity and SWB with aging persons (Leventhal, Rabin, Leventhal, & Bums, 2001; Rousseau & Vallerand, 2008). However, the relationship between engagement in activity and SWB is complex and numerous factors might influence the degree to which engagement is beneficial for aging persons (McAuley, Blissmer, Katula, Duncan, & Mihalko, 2000; Netz, Wu, Becker, & Tenenbaum, 2005). On the basis of these, it is possible to conclude that high levels of engagement in activity eventually lead to greater levels of SWB (Kozma, Stone, & Stones, 2000). To sum up, results are probably needed to identify more variables that may increase the likelihood that adult persons will benefit from an active lifestyle.

The Dualistic Model of Passion (DMP): In the line with the Self-Determination Theory (DMP), individuals engage in a variety of activities to explore their environment and grow as individuals (Genevieve A Mageau & Vallerand, 2007; Vallerand et al., 2003; Vallerand et al., 2006). Of these, few will be perceived as agreeable, enjoyable and having resonance with how persons see themselves. From these few activities, one or more favorite activity will eventually be preferred and will develop to be come a passion. Furthermore, the Self-Determination Theory and literature have shown that elements from the environments can be internalized in an independent or controlled variable (Grolnick, Deci, & Ryan, 1997). Passion can be composed of two types: Obsesseive Passion (OP) and Harmonious Passion (HP).

Obsesseive Passion (OP) is a result of controlled internalization of the desired activity into the individual's identity. Due to Vallerand et al. (2007), controlled internalization results from intra and/or interpersonal pressure, mostly because certain contingencies are attached to feelings of social acceptance as a needed and desired activity and/ or even because of the sense of excitement that is derived from engagement in activity which is uncontrollable. On the contrary, Harmonious Passion (HP) results from autonomous internalization of the activity representative of the person's identity. Autonomous internalization happens when an individual has openly accepted the activity as important to him/her with no or little contingencies. This type of internalization emanates from the intrinsic and integrative tendencies of the self (Ryan & Deci, 2003). It makes a motivational force to take part in the action energetically and induces a feeling of volition and personal endorsement about pursuing the activity. When HP is at play, the individual does not experience an uncontrollable urge to engage in the passionate activity, but rather freely chooses to do so. With this sort of passion, the activity occupies a significant, yet not overpowering space in the individual's identity and is in harmony with different aspects of the individual's life.

Accordingly, passion is described as having a harmonious passion. Yet, there is another sort of passion which is obsessive passion. Those who are obsessively passionate feel an uncontrollable urge to engage in their activity and experience a conflict between their passion and other aspects of their lives (Vallerand, 2012a). The literature review supports the concept of harmonious and obsessive passion. More than one hundred studies have supported the concept of passion and focused on a host of cognitive, affective, behavioral, relational, and performance outcomes experienced through hundreds of desired activities. Previous research reveals that HP predicts more adaptive outcomes than OP. …

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