Academic journal article Childhood Obesity

Trends of Child's Weight Perception by Children, Parents, and Healthcare Professionals during the Time of Terminology Change in Childhood Obesity in the United States, 2005-2014

Academic journal article Childhood Obesity

Trends of Child's Weight Perception by Children, Parents, and Healthcare Professionals during the Time of Terminology Change in Childhood Obesity in the United States, 2005-2014

Article excerpt

[Author Affiliation]

Takehiro Sugiyama. 1 Diabetes and Metabolism Information Center, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. 2 Department of Public Health/Health Policy, Graduate School of Medicine, the University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Masako Horino. 3 UCLA Center for Cancer Prevention and Control Research, Los Angeles, CA. 4 Department of Community Health Sciences, UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, Los Angeles, CA.

Kaori Inoue. 5 Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, the Institute for Adult Diseases, Asahi Life Foundation, Tokyo, Japan.

Yasuki Kobayashi. 2 Department of Public Health/Health Policy, Graduate School of Medicine, the University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Martin F. Shapiro. 6 Department of Health Policy and Management, UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, Los Angeles, CA. 7 Division of General Internal Medicine & Health Services Research, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA.

William J. McCarthy. 3 UCLA Center for Cancer Prevention and Control Research, Los Angeles, CA. 6 Department of Health Policy and Management, UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, Los Angeles, CA.

Address correspondence to: Takehiro Sugiyama, MD, MSHS, PhD, Diabetes and Metabolism Information Center, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, 1-21-1 Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8655, Japan, E-mail: tsugiyama-tky@umin.ac.jp

Introduction

Childhood obesity poses a major public health concern globally. In the United States, approximately one-third of children aged 2-19 years are overweight or obese,1,2 and the prevalence of childhood obesity has more than quadrupled in school-age children and adolescents since 1971.3 Childhood obesity affects children's immediate and long-term well-being.4 With respect to immediate health effects, obese children are more likely to experience depression and psychosocial difficulties.5 With regard to long-term effects, obese children are at greater risk for developing life-threatening chronic conditions, such as diabetes,6 cardiovascular disease,7 and all-cause mortality.8,9

In 2005, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) published a report to address the epidemic of childhood obesity among healthcare professionals (HCPs). At that time, new terminology was introduced; "obesity" replaced "overweight" for children with BMI ≥95th percentile for age and sex or >30 kg/m2 , and "overweight" replaced "at risk of overweight" for youth with BMI 85th to <95th percentiles for age and sex.10 This new terminology was implemented to effectively reinforce the importance of taking immediate action and the seriousness of obesity-related medical consequences. BMI in children reasonably correlates with direct measures of body fatness and much comorbidity, such as high blood pressure, insulin resistance, and increased lipid levels.10 In 2007, the Expert Committee published the evidence-based guidelines in all areas of obesity care in 2007 to be utilized by HCPs.11 The Expert Committee recommended that one of the best approaches for the HCP is to conduct routine assessments of all children at risk for obesity by plotting a BMI percentile on growth curve, and to have discussions with families regarding their children's weight statuses.11,12

Yet, the evidence suggests that the implementation of such clinical assessment on overweight and obesity children is not completed consistently.12,13 Healthcare systems often inhibit the HCPs from addressing overweight and obesity appropriately during clinical visits.13-15 Some of the obstacles to addressing childhood obesity in clinical settings include lack of reimbursement for lifestyle counseling,12-14 lack of time,13,14 lack of patient motivation,13 and fear of offending parents when identifying excess weight. …

Search by... Author
Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

Oops!

An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.