Academic journal article International Journal of Child and Adolescent Health

Prevalence of Obesity in School Children and Its Association with Parental Obesity in Central India

Academic journal article International Journal of Child and Adolescent Health

Prevalence of Obesity in School Children and Its Association with Parental Obesity in Central India

Article excerpt

Introduction

Childhood overweight and obesity have become the worldwide public health concern both in developed and developing nations (1). The last quarter of the 21th century has seen epidemiological transition is manifesting with increase in prevalence of noncommunicable diseases and decline in communicable diseases. The future studies have evidently recognized an association of overweight/obesity with non- communicable diseases (2). The childhood obesity repeatedly paths into adolescence vis-a-vis adults and is linked with increased mortality and morbidity (3). The overweight and obesity problem is steadily affecting many low- and middle-income (4, 5) countries, mostly in urban environments. Nearly 22 million children under the age of five are estimated to be overweight worldwide and an estimated global prevalence of overweight (including obesity) in children aged 5-17 y is at 10% (6).

Childhood obesity is associated with a higher chance of obesity, disability and premature death in adulthood. Although in addition to improved prospect risks likes obese children experience breathing difficulties, hypertension, increased risk of fractures and insulin resistance early markers of cardiovascular disease and psychological effects (11). Recent studies have shown that overweight and obesity are associated with hypertension, atherosclerotic risk factors dented glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes among children and adolescents (12, 13). Further overweight/obese children are frequently prone to unhealthy conditions, academically poor performance and social ineptness (14).

In India, the emergence of childhood obesity presents a cause for concern because of recent changes in lifestyle and economic development (15, 16). Nationally representative data on this subject from India is lacking (16) and also a paucity of such data from the Madhya Pradesh region. Indore being the commercial capital of Madhya Pradesh and located in Central India with a population of about 1.9 million (17), could have a comparatively higher prevalence of childhood obesity. WHO has also emphasized on urgent need of understanding the prevalence trend, factors contributing a developing strategies for effective prevention. In view of this information, the study was carried out in school children with as objective to know the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity from the urban population of Indore. An addition objective was to find out the influence of parental obesity on children.

Methods

This was a cross-sectional study with a sample of 1,200 students in the 5-15 year age group. The schools were selected by random selecting technique using purposive sampling procedure keeping in view the operational feasibility. A total of six schools were selected, three the public schools and three government schools. From each school, 200 students were randomly selected to be included in the study.

Consent to conduct the school survey was taken from the school authorities and Institutional Ethical Committee. A semi-structured pre-tested proforma was distributed to each child to collect data on family background, socio-demographic profile and anthropometric measurements. With the aid of class teachers, those proforma were initially filled up and returned to parents for filling rest of the information. Those were then collected and analysed. Parents of children were invited to schools through school authorities on a specified date to measure their weight and height and also confirm the authenticity of the filled up form. The information given on the proforma was relied upon for those parents who due to some reason couldn't come to schools. Incomplete or partially filled up forms resulted in exclusion from the study.

To examine the association of child's obesity with the parental obesity, BMIs of both parents were calculated using their weight and height. Prevalence rates of obesity was calculated in both sexes and presented as percentage. …

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