Academic journal article Academy of Marketing Studies Journal

The Human Capital Management by Smoothing of Spatial Polarization of the Region

Academic journal article Academy of Marketing Studies Journal

The Human Capital Management by Smoothing of Spatial Polarization of the Region

Article excerpt

INTRODUCTION

The economic trends of2015 were formed under the influence of Russian efforts in overcoming a shock impact of a decrease in oil prices and economic sanctions on the economy and public finances. During the first phase of economic adjustment the revenues abruptly decreased, having led to a decrease in consumer and investment demand. As a result, in 2015 the real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Russia shrank for 3.7 percent. The second shock triggered by a decrease in oil prices came in the beginning of August, 2015. A result of this an expected economic recovery has been delayed. The dependence on oil exports was a heavy burden for Russia in 2015, as the deterioration in external economic conditions led to a significant slowdown in the economy. In addition to the above, the growth of the world economy fell short of expectations again, having decreased from 2.6% in 2014 to 2.4% in 2015 (http://www.worldbank.org/eca/pubs/rer35_RUS.pdf). In major emerging countries and developing economies the slowdown in growth neutralized the slight recovery of economic growth in high-income countries, due to the active use of human capital. It should be noted that according to the World Bank data, in 2012 the combined potential for economic growth in developed countries was formed by 64% of human capital, and only by 20% of raw one. However, other ration indicators were indicated for the Russian Federation (RF), namely; raw factor was 72%, and human capital was only 14% (http://www.worldbank.org/eca/russian/data). An experience in the development of the world community on the cusp of XX-XXI centuries demonstrates that the state, which pay an increased attention to the role of human capital in framework of implementation of "catching-up" development model, has all the prerequisites for the transition to a post-industrial type of economy, that is of particular relevance in an aggravation of the problem of absolute limitation of material production factors.

Ensuring the effective transition of the Russian economy on an innovative path of development should be based on the formation of a sustainable development platform that assumes an implementation of the principle of balance in the management, the execution of which shall be primarily implemented at the regional level in terms of human capital consumption and accumulation in the conditions of disproportionate Russian economy (Friedmann, 1966).

THEORY AND METHOD

In the latter half of the XX century the regional science included a firm view of the concept of "spatial development", which a priori cannot be uniform. This is explained by two main theoretical models that have withstood check by time:

1. The center and peripheral model of spatial development by J.Friedman (Fukuchi, 2000). According to this model the centers of different levels always pool the resources (human, financial, natural) from their periphery; and namely a concentration of resources creates the opportunities for innovative changes in the centers themselves, then these innovations are transferred to the periphery with a lag in time, depending on the size of barriers to the movement of innovation. There is a moveable area of semi-periphery between the center and the periphery, which is more active and can intercept the functions of the center with a sudden change of conditions (Gabdrakhmanov, 2014). This model works on all levels: from global cities and major agglomerations to the regional and local centers.

2. The research of processes of spatial concentration of the economy (Krugman, 1991), including in the framework of the "new economic geography" by P. Krugman. According to this model, the fundamental cause of economic inequality is a well-studied in the regional science the process of concentration of economic activity in the regions, which have the comparative advantages that helps to reduce the cost of doing business. Among these advantages P. Krugman (Bell, 1976) identifies the factors of "first nature "(wealth of natural resources, advantageous geographical location), the factors that little depend on the human and the factors of "second nature" (human capital, institutional environment, agglomeration effect), which are most associated with the activities of the state and society. …

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