Academic journal article Indian Journal of Positive Psychology

A Study of Spirituality and Social Support in Relation to Depression among Adolescents

Academic journal article Indian Journal of Positive Psychology

A Study of Spirituality and Social Support in Relation to Depression among Adolescents

Article excerpt

Depression is a common mental health problem among general population and it is more common specially for school and college students, because modem era is the age of advanced science and technology which vastly effect individual's everyday life. As a result individual's needs and expectations are also changed, they generally prefer to live more comfortable and luxurious life, do best from others, achieve more success in their life, for which they work hard for gaining standard of excellence in their field. No doubt, this highly developed technology not only made everything easy rather it also effect on individuals physical lives, as well as it significantly influence on individuals thought, emotion and behaviors. For students population, in one side they have many opportunities for growth and personality development from their schools, colleges and home environment, while on the other hand they are facing a large number of potentially stressful circumstances, such as academic demands, parental pressure, financial difficulties, and a variety of social stressors. As aresult, up to one third of all adolescents population are suffering from anxiety and depression (Allgower, Wardle, & Steptoe, 2001; Bishop, Bauer & Becker,1998). Lewinsohn, Rohde, Seeley, and Fischer (1993) found that depression is one of the most frequently diagnosed psychiatric disorders in youth with as many as 9% of children having experienced at least one episode of DSM-IV major depression by the age of 14 Prevalence rates for subsyndromal depressive symptoms are even greater with between 10% and 30% of youth exceeding cutoff scores on self-report measures of depressive symptoms (Hammen & Rudolph, 2003). Similarly, a study conducted by Mohanraj, Subbaiah (2010) in which they examined the prevalence of depressive symptoms among 964 (509 males, 455, females) adolescents studying in classes X, XI and XII in different schools in Chennai. Their results showed that based on the cut-off scores, 378 adolescents (39.2%) were found to be non-depressed, 358 (37.1%) were mildly depressed, 187 (19.4%) were moderately depressed and 41 (4.3%) severely depressed. They also found that in their study that adolescents experienced emotional manifestations of depression like sadness, irritability, self-accusations and crying spells dominated over cognitive, behavioral and physical manifestations of depression. They also found no any significant gender differences but a higher proportion of girls (27%) reported moderate to severe depression thanboys (21%).

Depression

The World Health Organization graded depression as the fourth most significant cause of suffering and disability worldwide, behind only heart disease, cancer, and traffic accidents. The organization also predicts that by the year 2020, depression willjump up to the second leading cause of suffering in the world. Depression is a disorder of major public health importance, in terms of its prevalence and the suffering, dysfunction, morbidity, and economic burden.

It is also observed that depression is more common in women than men. The report on Global Burden of Disease estimates the point prevalence of unipolar depressive episodes to be 1.9% for men and 3.2% for women, and the one-year prevalence has been estimated to be 5.8% for men and 9.5% for women. In view of the morbidity, depression as a disorder has always been a focus of attention of researchers in India.

Depression is a mental disorder that is defined by certain problems in emotional, behavioral and thought patterns. Petersen and colleagues (1999) defined adolescent depression at three levels: (1) depressed mood, (2) depressive syndrome, and (3) clinical depression. Depressed mood is sadness at various times in response to an unhappy situation. Depressive syndrome is experiencing anxiety with other symptoms such as feeling sad, lonely, unloved and worthless. Clinical depression is manifestation of five or more depressive symptoms lasting continuously for two weeks and impairing current functioning. …

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