Academic journal article Researchers World

Systemic Analysis of Grammatical Metaphor in Text of Waijewa Language

Academic journal article Researchers World

Systemic Analysis of Grammatical Metaphor in Text of Waijewa Language

Article excerpt


As human beings people have to interact with others in their life, and in order to interact they use language as a main tool. Language be used sometimes can be directly understood or sometimes must be interpreted firstly by listeners or readers in order to get a clear picture. This fact generally happens because a speaker or a writer uses language variation to express his/her meaning. The use of this language variation to express meaning is known as metaphor (Halliday, 1994:431). Language can be expressed through congruent way, and the non-congruent ways of encoding language are referred to as grammatical metaphor (Halliday, 1994; 1998; Halliday & Matthiessen, 1999; Matthiessen and Matthiessen 2014).

Metaphor is not only understood from its linguistic phenomenon but also it needs cognitive competence since this phenomenon covers human's thought process completely to catch a meaning behind a word, phrase or sentence be listened or read in a certain text or situation. Lakoff and Johson (1980) stated that metaphor as an understanding and experience of something through something else. Therefore, someone can understand new things through other things else that has been known before. Moreover, Lakoff and Johson said that experience of someone had culturalistic and it can be as background of every human beings' experience. Thus, it can be said that comprehension of metaphor either spoken or written requires someone to use prior knowledge to understand the meaning behind a word, phrase or clause that has metaphor.

Halliday (1994:341-342) proposed theory of functional grammar in which grammatical metaphora is introduced and described by a reason that metaphor can occur on different level, such as at lexical level and also at syntactical level. Halliday's view of grammatical metaphor is that language as a system of meaning potential and rules is not more than system of choice. It means that a speaker or a writer can choose special form of language to express himself/herself based on his/her purposes, and different meaning are realized by different forms of language too. Moreover, it was stated that whenever language was used there were two of choices, namely choice of form that is consistent to a fact or congruent and choice of non-congruent fact. Choices that are not consistent to a fact according Halliday is called metaphor. The use of language that is not concruent belongs to metaphor (Halliday, 1985, 1994; Halliday and Matthiessen, 1998. 2004). Gramatical metaphor is defferent from lexical metaphor in the case that lexical meaning does not change except the change of its function. Halliday classified grammatical metaphor into two types, ideational metaphor and interpersonal metaphor. Ideational metaphor realized by transitivitas covers the use of process and nominakization, while interpersonal metaphor relates to mood perspective and modality.(Halliday, 1994; Halliday and Matthiesen, 2004). Interpersonal grammatical metaphor stated by Traveniers (2004:3) "as a doubling of semiosis: a 'doubling of scoping ' in structural terms, and a 'doubling of grounding ' in semantic terms."

The example of grammatical metaphor in Waijewa language such as the use of verb ngaa 'to eat' becomes noun pangaa 'meals'. In a clause such as ma ngindi ranga 'we bring animals' ^ rangapangindi ma 'animals brought by us' (phrase). This example also shows process of using clause to noun phrase. In lexical metaphor, the lexical meaning is changed and not the use of word literally (Traveniers, 2006 in Kazemian, et al, 2013: 158).

The use of grammatical metaphor systemically is influenced by its context, so it can be said that a text either spoken or written text be influenced by context in which it is used. Therefore, it is essential and interesting to analyze whether the grammatical metaphor used a 'text' or 'context'. Analyzing text means analyzing its language (Brown and Yule, 1983:1). It is also stated by Halliday (1985a:10) that a linguist describeing language without considering text is barren, and describing text without relating to language is empty. …

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