Academic journal article Journal of Political Studies

Loopholes in Public Policy Making: A Case Study of Pakistan

Academic journal article Journal of Political Studies

Loopholes in Public Policy Making: A Case Study of Pakistan

Article excerpt

Introduction

Policy making clearly is a decisive stage in the process of policy, also a precise subject matter of policy design. The movement of the science of policy making remained distressed regarding correlation linking knowledge, the making of a policy and power. The subject was the work of Harold Lasswell, the founding father of public policy. He considered democracy to be a continuous process in which one of the particular challenges faced by modern democracy was to guarantee that policy making remained informed by a new-fangled interaction among those producing knowledge and those using it (Torgerson, D, 1985).Formulation of public policy is deemed as a part of the pre-decision stage of policy creation include creation of goals, main concerns, opportunities and cost and advantages of every option. It includes identification of a number of policy options and means of public policy concentrating on a problems resulting in an organized set of resolutions completed for lasting solutions under which the decision maker essentially makes choices by make judgments concerning the feasibility, political recognition , cost and gains. Policy formulation also is entrenched in policy community described by Pross (1989) as an association of personalities, groups, government section, institutes and agency directing decision making in a particular field of policy and policy networks. Conversely, the development of policy formulation requires incentive and contribution of many actors bringing in new actors and initiatives that play an essential role in the development of designing a policy.

The Making of Public Policy in Developing Countries

The socio-economic and political circumstance of any country establishes or outlines the arrangement of a certain policy. Governments of the developing countries necessitate participation from the business and civil community if they are to develop the transparency, excellence, efficiency, legality and plans of their public policies.

According to Hai Do (2010) formation of a policy incorporates the dominant model of bureaucratic politics between the "interrupted equilibrium, organizational process and rational actors." Combining Rhode's analysis of eight essential kinds of subsystems presented by Atkinson and Coleman (1992) and detailed by Frans Van Waarden (1992) seven criterion on variation of networks which included

* Quality and different kinds of actors

* Purposes of networks

* Structures

* Instituitionalization

* Rules of behavior

* Relationship of power &

* Strategies of actors

Howlett (1998) and Ramesh (2003) kept on constructing the taxonomy of the discourse (a reference to conversation, words and statements within the policy society) community, two dichotomous elements in a prevailing set of thoughts and their numbers which are to pertain realistically in policy formulation. Additionally, other variables outlining the formation and conduct of policy network include having knowledge regarding the networks and taxonomy of interest and the quantity of members. In developing states, these two elements in addition to the principal set of thoughts and the association of ideas are utilized for conferring the process of public policy making.

Approaches Taken By Developing States in Public Policy Making

The economic progress of any country is dependent on the features of its policy framework and decision making, principally the practice which is occupied in the formation of every decision. Another established fact is that in every part of the world, developing countries differ significantly in their ability and willingness to construct and implement policies making progressive performance with regards to development (Corkery, J, Land, A et.al, 1995). In the world of public policy making, formulating a policy is a component of the phase of pre-decision making. The task embraces recognition of a number of public policy options for addressing the socio-economic troubles and the process of selection narrowing solution for subsequent stages. …

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