Academic journal article Management : Journal of Contemporary Management Issues

Shared Values and Organizational Citizenship Behavior of Generational Cohorts: A Review and Future Directions/zajednicke Vrijednosti, Ponasanje Povezano S Organizacijskom Pripadnoscu I Generacijske Skupine: Pregled Teorije I Odrednice Buducih Istrazivanja

Academic journal article Management : Journal of Contemporary Management Issues

Shared Values and Organizational Citizenship Behavior of Generational Cohorts: A Review and Future Directions/zajednicke Vrijednosti, Ponasanje Povezano S Organizacijskom Pripadnoscu I Generacijske Skupine: Pregled Teorije I Odrednice Buducih Istrazivanja

Article excerpt

1.INTRODUCTION

The investigation of generational differences among workforces is a critical issue but not much importance is given to management research (Westerman & Yamamura, 2007). In this decade, the academicians and the practitioners show much focus on this pertinent issue. Much interest is shown by human resource specialists, managers and researchers in dealing with multigenerational workforce (Cennamo and Gardner, 2008).

Research on generational differences are conducted in the US, the UK, Canada, Belgium, Australia and New Zealand. They shared similar demographic patterns, critical social incidents and changes and hence they followed similar generation category. But, from the cultural context it could be slightly different in countries like India and China (e.g. Roongrengsuke, 2010). The generational cohorts appear to be differing in their birth year, experience, life stage and career stage, work values, goals, and expectations (Cennamo & Gardner, 2008). Mannheim (1953) stated that a generation is a cluster of people who were born and raised in the identical social and historical circumstances. Strauss and Howe (1997) defined generational categories, as baby boomers (born between 1943 and 1960); Gen X (born between 1961 to 1981) and Gen Y or Millennials (born between 1982 to 2004).

The indispensable factor in generational diversity is to comprehend the values, attitudes, and behaviours of generational cohorts. The empirical evidence shows that values are one of the factors that influence behaviour (e.g. Bardi and Schwartz, 2003). The investigators have studied the in-role and extra-role behaviours in organizations (Vilela et al., 2008). The investigation by Lyons (2004) confirms that the basic human value structure (e.g. openness to change and self-enhancement) of Millennials and Gen X is differing. Miller and Yu (2003) pointed out that each generation has its unique sets of work values and organizational values. The occurrence of the diverse values among generational cohorts enlightened the academic researchers, practitioners, and managers to contemplate and operationalise the research to draw the attitudes and behavioural outcomes. Values influence the work behaviour and direct their efforts toward organizational citizenship behaviour (Florea et al., 2013). The shared values or PO fit represent (Person-Organization fit) the similarity between the individual values and organizational values. The PO fit (Person-Organization fit) influences positive outcome to employees and organizations (Cable and Judge 1997; Kristof, 1996; McDonald and Gandz, 1992), workplace adjustment and career success (Judge, 1994), organizational commitment and job satisfaction (Finegan, 2000; Kristof-Brown, 2000).

This article reviews the literature regarding diverse characteristics of generational cohorts and their impact on various outcomes. The overview of literature posits the insight for further investigation on Gen X and Gen Y, also referred as Millennials.

2.THE DIFFERENCE IN GENERATIONAL CATEGORIES BETWEEN WESTERN CONTEXT AND INDIAN CONTEXT

A generation is defined as an "identifiable group that shares birth years, age, location, and significant life events at critical developmental stages" (Kupperschmidt, 2000). From the societal context, a number of investigators have examined the expression 'generation' as the group of people who are born in the identical epoch and share key historical or social life experiences (Wey Smola and Sutton, 2002). The people born in diverse phases such as conflict (war) and stability (peace) have a propensity to think and perform according to their situation (Gursoy et al., 2008). Such situations and life episodes discern the generational disparity (Jurkiewicz and Brown, 1998).

The generational cohorts share the similar characteristics (e.g., views, values and attitudes). The researches on Baby Boomers and Gen X were plenty. But, in the current scenario, the inflow of Gen Y or Millennials is experienced in workplace. …

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