Academic journal article IUP Journal of International Relations

Cartography of Terrorism: America's Cultural Imperialism and Geopolitical Anxiety in Frank Miller's Holy Terror

Academic journal article IUP Journal of International Relations

Cartography of Terrorism: America's Cultural Imperialism and Geopolitical Anxiety in Frank Miller's Holy Terror

Article excerpt

Introduction

The history witnesses how the discourse plays a greater role in shaping a particular culture. From the 1900 onwards, the discourse has its great impact on the various aspects of social as well as an economic strategy. For example, 'Nazi' falls under the category of 'death', the 'Communists' are always equated with 'decay' and 'Islam' is called the other side of 'terrorism'. What is this discourse that changed the world view? Why is this discourse? How does this discourse work? Who are the people to propagate this discourse?

In Foucauldian sense, 'discourse' is an area of social knowledge which is bounded and a system of statements through which the world can be judged and viewed. According to Foucault, discourse is the systems of thoughts composed of ideas, attitudes, and courses of action, beliefs and practices that systematically construct the subjects and the worlds of which we speak. It is through the discourse that the relationship of everything exists in this world, whether it is male-female relationship or God-human relationship. 'Discourse' can be classified into four categories depending upon the objective-exposition, narration, description and argument. 'Exposition' focuses on various aspects of the comparative study of two inter or intra fields of culture, whereas 'narration' is based on the story or the description related to the exposition; it is a kind of medium of communication through which the concept of 'exposition' can be expressed. 'Description' relates to the senses of the audience; it is the image maker in the mind of the reader or the receiver. 'Argument' is something where all three aspects of discourse are brought together and with the help of reasoning and logic the audience or the receiver is forced to believe or accept the created discourse. Foucault talks about the philosophical implications of the historical method of analyzing the 'discourse'. "Discourse is not the majestically unfolding manifestation of a thinking, knowing, speaking subject, but, on the contrary, a totality, in which the dispersion of the subject and his discontinuity with himself may be determined."1

The relationship between discourse and power is the focal point of Foucault. This power is expressed through the statements and the practices in the society. The society is being shaped by the language and the language has greater access to the power. At the beginning of any discourse simply the statements are the basic elements to constitute the body. There are other aspects too, which make this body of statements or 'discourse' complete, they are, to analyze how these statements are created, to check in this created statement which can be said and which can be excluded and excessive practices of these statements. Discourse cannot take place without the implication of power and knowledge. Those who have the power have control over the knowledge and those who have the knowledge have control over the power. With the help of power and knowledge the truth can be false and the false can be truth. Foucault says regarding the conditional relation of power and knowledge:

The important thing here, I believe, is that truth is not outside power, or lacking in power: contrary to a myth whose history and function would repay further study, truth is not the reward of the free spirits, the child of protracted solitude, nor those who have succeeded of liberating themselves. Truth is a thing of this world: it is produced only by virtue of multiple forms of constraint. And it induces the regular effect of power. Each society has its regime of truth, its 'general politics' of truth: that is the types of discourse that which it accepts and makes function as true; the mechanisms and instances which enable one to distinguish true and false statements, the means by which the each is sanctioned; the techniques and procedures accorded value in acquisition of truth; the status of those who are charged with saying what counts as true. …

Search by... Author
Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

Oops!

An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.