Academic journal article Indian Journal of Positive Psychology

Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Therapy on Symptoms Reduction and Improving Quality of Life Patients with Excoriation Disorder

Academic journal article Indian Journal of Positive Psychology

Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Therapy on Symptoms Reduction and Improving Quality of Life Patients with Excoriation Disorder

Article excerpt

Excoriation disorder is also known as skin picking, neurotic excoriation, pathologic skin picking, psychogenic excoriation, dermatotillomania, and emotional excoriation in different texts. In fact, all terms point out the same clinical picture and show various psychological and dermatologic findings related to this clinical picture (Keuthen, Wilhelm, Deckersbach, Engelhard, Forker, & Baer, 2001; Mutasim, 2010). In this study, this disorder is referred to as excoriation disorder. In the fifth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in American Psychiatric Association (2013) excoriation disorder is considered as an independent category and one of the obsessive-compulsive disorder sub-groups(Singh, Wähler, Winton & Adkins, 2004). Excoriation disorder is defined as a compulsive picking of skin that results in tissue damage because of distress or behavioral disorder. It will be revealed because of itching, scratching, rubbing, or squeezing normal skin or skin with minor injuries (Arnold, McElroy, Mutasim, Dwight, Lamerson, & Morris, 1998). Skin picking damages usually can be seen in thessaly accessible areas of skin (Flessner, Busch, Heideman & Woods, 2008). In spite of relative significant prevalence of excoriation disorder, i.e. 1/4 percent or even more in general population (American Psychiatric Association, 2013), only two percent of dermatologists patients (Gupta, Gupta, & Haberman, 1987),four percent of university students (Keuthen, Deckersbach, Wilhelm, Hale, Fraim, & Baer, 2000) and 11.8 percent of psychologists patients are diagnosed with this disorder (Grant, Williams & Potenza, 2007).

Treatments such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (Flessner, Busch, Heideman & Woods, 2008) (Twohig & Wood, 2006), acceptance and commitment therapy accompanied by habit reversal training are reported to have positive outcomes (Schuck, et. al, 2010) (Schuck, Keijsers & Rinck, 2011), (Kathrin, 2011). Mindfulness concept has been developed over two thousand years and over the past decades it has been used increasingly. Mindfulness is originated from Buddhism (Kumar, 2002). By the end of 1970s, mindfulness, particularly mindfulness meditation, was used in psychotherapy. These new and improved therapies emphasize that present-moment awareness and acceptance are two important aspects of mindfulness meditation which is called the "third wave of behavior therapy" (Breslin, Zack, & McMain, 2002). These approaches emphasize topics such as being non-judgmental, acceptance, mindfulness, values, spirituality, relationships, and dialectic that are usually avoided in CBT clinical works because of possessing less experimental aspects of conventional cognitive-behavior therapy (Towhing et al., 2006).

Kabat zinn was the first researcher who proposeda mindfulness practice that was clinically supported. Kabat zinn (1990) defined mindfulness as a non-judgmental moment-to-moment awareness. In 1994, he described mindfulness as non-judgmental moment-to-moment attention. In 2003, he completed his definition and recognized mindfulness as a kind of awareness which appears by non-judgmental purposeful attention to the present momentand present-moment experiences. WHO (2006, cited by Mansourian, Behnampour, Kargar, & Rahimzadeh, 2006) defined the quality of life as the individuals' perception about their status in their lives, culture, value system and lifestyle and its relation with their goals, wishes, standards and concerns.

The quality of life in obsessive-compulsive disorders was taken into account by the publication of Tollefson, Birklt, Koran, and Genduso's article (1997). In some studies, the quality of life could be compared to patients with Schizophrenia and patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (Bobes, Gonzalez, Bascaran, Arango, Saiz, & Bousono, 2001). Bobes et al. (2001) found that patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder had lower scores in their quality of life than heroin addicts and this was true for mental health in relation to quality of life at the time of comparing patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder to patients with physical problems. …

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