Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

The Effect of a Music and Movement Program on Gait, Balance and Psychological Parameters of Adults with Cerebral Palsy

Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

The Effect of a Music and Movement Program on Gait, Balance and Psychological Parameters of Adults with Cerebral Palsy

Article excerpt


Cerebral palsy (CP) is a non-progressive disorder occurring in early brain development that results in abnormal movement and posture (Rosenbaum et al., 2007). The main features of participants with CP are impaired movement and posture that involves gait and upper body coordination as well as problems with balance and psychological problems such as negative emotional image and low self-esteem (Fairhurst, 2012; Graham & Selber, 2003; Krigger, 2006; Murphy & Such-Neibar, 2003; Reddihough & Collins, 2003; Rapp & Torres, 2000; Sandström, 2007; Steenbergen & Utley, 2005). Spastic Hemiplegia (SH) is type of CP that affects partially or totally only one half molecule of the body and common problems for those with SH include motor difficulties, such as small stride length, asymmetric walking, slowness, and reduced ability to coordinate movements, which affects the posture and walking as well as symmetrical proper use of the trunk and upper-extremity (Boyd et al., 2010; Kulak & Sobaniec, 2005; Motta, Antonello, & Stignani, 2011; Staudt et al., 2004; van der Slot et al., 2007; Willis, Morello, Davie, Rice, & Bennett, 2002).

Studies showed that people with CP due to difficulties in physical and mental function, social support and other features have difficulty with rhythmic perception, rhythmic performance of movement and responsiveness rhythmic auditory stimuli (Kwak & Kim, 2013; McRorie & Cooper, 2004). The difficulty of understanding rhythmic sounds restricts the efficiency of movement and creates psychological distress, with consistent tendency for isolation and negative emotions towards familiar environment and self (Manuel, Naughton, Balkrishnan, Paterson-Smith, & Koman, 2003; Shields, Murdoch, Loy, Dodd, & Taylor, 2006).

In intervention studies involving persons with mobility limitation it was observed that the use of music and rhythm programs activated the motor and auditory system and consistently, improved balance, walking and mental health conditions (Jeong & Kim, 2007; Kim et al., 2011). Moreover, it seemed to be of significant benefit as regards to coordination of movements and at the same time, improvement of gross and fine motor skills, enhancement of tactile sensation and improvement of emotional and social development, especially in the case individuals with CP participated in music and motor activities basically designed on the theory of rhythmic auditory stimulation (Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation-RAS) (Chung, 2002; Farrell, Bagley, Davids, Foti, & Moore, 1999; Jiang, 2013; Kim et al., 2011; Kim, Kwak, Park, & Cho, 2012; Kwak, 2007; Kwak & Kim, 2013; Thaut, Hurt, Dragon, & Mcintosh, 1998; Varsamis, Staikopoulos, & Kartasidou, 2012).

Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation (RAS) is neurologic technique using the physiological effects of auditory rhythm on the motor system to improve the control of movement in rehabilitation and therapy (Thaut, 2005, p. 139). Rhythm is an essential element of motor movement including motor control and output (Molinari, Leggio, De Martin, Cerasa, & Thaut, 2003), since rhythmic auditory cuing facilitates movement by providing a mechanism for planning movements (Thaut et al., 2007). It has been reported that intervention programs based on RAS method may improve upper and lower extremity function and gait in terms of velocity, stride length and rhythm (Abbud, Li, & De Mont, 2009; Amatachaya, Keawsutthi, Amatachaya, & Manimmanakorn, 2009; Kim et al., 2007; Richards, Senesac, Davis, Woodbury, & Nadeau, 2008; Thaut et al., 2007), as well as psychological stress parameters such as depression, anger, wellness and quality of life to people with various kinds of neurologic diseases (Hayashi, Nagaoka, & Mizuno, 2006; Jeong & Kim, 2007; Pacchetti et al., 2000).

Previous researchers have incorporated music components into rehabilitation exercise programs as a means of motivating stroke patients and adding a "fun" component to the repetitive and sometimes painful rehabilitation exercise routines (Kim & Koh, 2005; Purdie, Hamilton, & Baldwin, 1997). …

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