Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Coaching Behaviors and the Type of Feedback They Provide to Young Volleyball Athletes

Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Coaching Behaviors and the Type of Feedback They Provide to Young Volleyball Athletes

Article excerpt

Introduction

Coaching behaviors and their effect upon athletes have always been interesting for researchers, since the role of the coach and coaching behaviors are directly connected to the athletes' performance. The evaluation of coaching behaviors is an important part of sports development (Weiss, 2004; Malina & Clark, 2003; Smoll & Smith, 2002). Coaching behaviors can be either positive or negative for athletes (Smoll & Smith, 2006). Coaching is a highly influential role, especially in youth sport and can have a significant effect on the states and attributes of the participants, and subsequently, the individual and social benefits of sport. Appropriate coaching behaviors have been linked to higher self-esteem, higher competence, and longer involvement in sport (Amorose & Anderson-Butcher, 2007; Conroy & Coatsworth, 2006; Smith, Zane, Smoll, & Coppel, 1983). Coaches also influence the youth sport experience through their goals, behaviors, values, and attitudes (Fraser-Thomas & Côté, 2009; Newin, Bloom, & Loughead, 2008; Smith & Smoll, 2002; Bebetsos, Zetou, & Antoniou, 2014).

The degree of enjoyment experienced by youth and their desire to continue their involvement in sport has largely been influenced by their coach or physical education (PE) instructor (e.g., Fraser-Thomas, Côté, & Deakin, 2005; Weiss & Williams, 2004; Smoll, Smith, Barnett, & Everett, 1993;Vernadakis, Kouli, Tsitskari, Gioftsidou, & Antoniou, 2014). In fact, about the one-third of youth athletes do not participate in sport the following year (Weiss & Ferrer-Caja, 2002). Several reasons have been cited for sport withdrawal including disliking the coach or the PE instructor (Hedstrom & Gould, 2004; Kouli, Bebetsos, Kamperis, & Papaioannou, 2010).

There are many factors that determine coaching behaviors. Lately, an effort is being made in order to find out which are these factors, since it has been proven that they are interconnected with the coaches' efficiency (Horn's Model of Coaching Effectiveness, Horn, 2008). Coaching characteristics refer to the initial opinion or expectation that coaches have for their athletes (Horn, 1986), to the goals they will set and to the communication they will develop. The way each coach or PE instructor designs and implements their daily practice plan, is directly affecting the learning process, as well as the likelihood of injury and consequently the performance of the athletes (Beneka, Malliou, Gioftsidou, Tsigganos, Zetou, & Godolias, 2009; Zetou, Malliou, Lola, Tsigganos, & Godolias, 2006). The research on the factors that determine coaching behaviors and efficiency is an effort that has been going on for three decades and investigate the particular coaching characteristics, the abilities, the knowledge, the strategies, the techniques and the coaching behaviors that coaches exhibit and whether these are related to the coaches' efficiency. Duda and Ballaguer (2007), mention in their research that the role of the coaches is a multi-level one. Coaches and PE instructors need to have multiple skills since they have a significant influence on their athletes (Jowett, 2003; Reinboth, Duda, & Ntoumanis, 2004) but they should also be capable of providing support to their athletes in order to create, improve and maintain their competition level. Successful coaches and PE instructors are able and can motivate their athletes/students, providing them an environment that is suitable for learning, improvement and development (Antoniou, Gourgoulis, Trikas, Mavridis, & Bebetsos, 2003; Vernadakis, Giannousi, Tsitskari, Antoniou, & Kioumourtzoglou, 2012) and they are the ones that are near their athletes and solve any problem might arise (Bandura, 1997).

An efficient coach can influence the nature and the quality of the experience of his/her athletes and for this reason he/she must have excellent scientific techniques (Cushion & Jones, 2001; Mesquita, Sobrinho, & Rosado, 2008) and knowledge, regardless of the age or the competition level of his/her athletes (Giatsis, Zetou, & Tzetzis, 2005). …

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