Academic journal article European Journal of Sustainable Development

Significance of Cultural Heritage Preservation in Sustainable Cultural Tourism: Muradiye Complex in Bursa, Turkey

Academic journal article European Journal of Sustainable Development

Significance of Cultural Heritage Preservation in Sustainable Cultural Tourism: Muradiye Complex in Bursa, Turkey

Article excerpt

1.Introduction

Cultural tourism, one of the most important branches of tourism industry, has recently become more popular as a result of increase in awareness of cultural assets. One of the actions taken to increase the popularity of tourism, which has an undeniable contribution to social, cultural and economic development, is to facilitate transportation to targeted attraction points. In 1980s, when tourism first started to develop in Turkey, three S's, namely sea, sand and sun were emphasize in tourism policies. However, these concepts have recently reached saturation and they are now insufficient to increase competitiveness in tourism. As a result, individuals have started to prefer alternative tourism types, which make it possible to learn new things, be more active and comfortable and to address one's interests. Cultural tourism is leading these alternatives. The purpose of this study is to analyze the restoration of the Muradiye Complex in Bursa with reference to cultural tourism as an example to restoration projects carried in the light of providing sustainability, use and conservation of cultural assets in Turkey (§ahin, 2012).

2.Cultural Heritage and Tourism

Countries have developed and competitive products and strategies to increase their share in world tourism within the scope of their holistic solution needs and existing potentials. As a result, they have come up with the concept of "alternative tourism". Opinions regarding the emergence of alternative tourism vary a lot.

The reasons for emergence of alternative tourism are:

* Decrease in resources and deterioration in their qualities,

* Sustainable tourism understanding,

* The concept of spreading tourism throughout the year

* Consumers are bored of classical tourism and have different expectations,

* creating different vacation options for consumers

Cultural tourism, one of these alternative tourism types, has grown significantly in line with the evolving expectations and preferences of tourists. Tourists want to visit more diffierent and authentic places, as a result of which there has been an increase in travels to cultural sites. World Tourism Organization estimates 37% of tourism travels correspond to cultural tourism and that this demand will increase by 15% every year.

Development of the Concept of Cultural Heritage and Preservation in the World

The concept of cultural heritage and preservation was first discussed at the first International Congress of Architects and Technicians of Historic Monuments organized by the International Museums Organization in Athens in 1931. In this conference, also known as the Athens Conference, it was suggested that areas surrounding historical sites, groups of historic monuments and landscapes should be preserved. These principles were officially adopted in Italy in 1932 under the title of 'Carta del Restauro' (Restoration Charter).

Later on awareness, regarding heritage preservation increased and on 16.11.1945 UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) was founded by 20 countries, including Turkey. "The European Cultural Convention", of which Turkey is a party to, was prepared by the Council of Europe that was founded in 1949 and signed on 19.12.1954 and came into force on 05.05.1955.

The Venice Charter, which was written in Venice in 1964 and considered to be one of the most important documents in the field of preservation, was adopted as the conclusion charter of the First International Congress of Architects and Specialists of Historic Buildings. The International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) was founded in 1965 in Warsaw as a result of the Venice Charter's recommendation on founding an international council to work actively in preservation of monuments and sites. The main objectives of the 2nd Council are preservation of monuments and sites, developing principles, techniques and policies and last but not least supporting any kind of research and development. …

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