Academic journal article European Journal of Sustainable Development

Government Policy as a Driver of Energy Saving in Egypt

Academic journal article European Journal of Sustainable Development

Government Policy as a Driver of Energy Saving in Egypt

Article excerpt

1. Introduction

In the past few years, new barriers to urban development (UD) in Egypt have appeared. The first is water shortage. Egypt has reached a state where the quantity of water available limits national UD. The second barrier lies is fossil fuel crisis. Egypt's energy production mainly depends on fossil fuel. Production is not enough for the demanded energy and the country does not have enough money to import fuels. The third barrier is climate change, one that is usually neglected or considered a secondary priority.

In order to reach global sustainable development, the sustainability and efficiency of urban energy systems should be enhanced. New plans, strategies, and regulations need to be set to save energy in case the energy resources needed for urban development are not met. This paper studies the governmental policies that deal with the technological, innovative, behavioral, and structural capacities of the Egyptian UD. It focuses on the transition towards sustainable urban development (SUD) and the tools to enhance the efficiency of urban energy systems. The study discusses the need to set new national strategies and policies which depend on new approaches of SUD planning. This is in order to improve the performance capacities and capabilities of the new energy saving techniques.

Egypt is an emerging country [1] whose economy and population are growing. Like other emerging countries, these economic conditions along with the increasing population have led to chaotic urbanization. Egypt heavily depends on fossil fuels for power production and already has local resources of fossil fuels. However, in the last decade, domestic demand overpassed production. "Subsequently the consumption of energy has been boosted. As a result, in the recent years, domestic supplies have fallen short of demand, due to the ongoing increase in consumption, stagnation in production, and a very generous subsidy policy which heavily contributed to increasing consumption" [2]. Egypt has to find a new approach to deal with these common urban problems. This is through developing new national strategies and policies that depend on new approaches to reach sustainable urban development planning and to continuously improve the performance capacities and capabilities.

2. Policies and Strategies

Egypt's present economy is high-energy and demand-intensive. The demands are met by energy yielding fossil fuels. Energy efficiency and renewable energy sources are proposed solutions and are named the 'twin pillars' of the sustainable energy policy. In the coming few pages the research explores some of the major experiences of developed countries and will use them as a guide for the Egyptian government and its institutions. It studies their plans and strategies in dealing with the energy saving necessity. This should help Egypt develop new national strategies and policies that enhance the technological, innovative, behavioral and structural capacities of Egyptian UD in its transition towards sustainable urban development (SUD). The study pays attention to the contribution of the developed countries, especially the USA and the EU and their plans and strategies for sustainable energy policy. The study suggests four strategies as reference. It uses the experiences the developed countries have had with these strategies as a driver for energy saving in Egypt.

2.1. Green building programs

2.2. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)

2.3. Environmental construction product

2.4. Climate protection management (CPM)

2.1 Green building programs

On an international level, there are many institutions that contribute to setting codes that motivate energy saving. Sustainability is adopted into building codes at different levels and with varying motivations according to the government policies by which these codes abide. The approach taken reflects local social perceptions, political priorities, national policies, and economic factors. …

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