Academic journal article International Journal of Education and Management Studies

Relationship between Person-Organization Fit and Job Satisfaction: Mediating Role of Need Satisfaction

Academic journal article International Journal of Education and Management Studies

Relationship between Person-Organization Fit and Job Satisfaction: Mediating Role of Need Satisfaction

Article excerpt

In the study of organizational behaviour the match between employees and their work environment is one of the most widely researched topics (Kristof-Brown, Zimmerman, & Johnson, 2005). The match between characteristics of individuals and their work environments is generally referred to as person-environment fit (P-E fit). It is important to understand the person-environment fit is because of its influence on outcomes at each phase of employees' organizational life cycles. Particularly, P-E fit relates to a large and diverse set of employee attitudes and behaviours.

Lewin (1935) suggested that human behaviour is a function of both the person and the environment. The notion that behaviour can be explained through a person-environment interface has converted one of the more broadly accepted theoretical viewpoints of human behaviour. Person-environment fit is defined by Kristof-Brown, Zimmerman, and Johnson (2005) as "the compatibility between individual and a particular work environment that occurs when their characteristics are well matched."

Several different constructs have evolved from P-E fit, including person-job fit (P-J fit), person-group fit (P-G fit), person-organization fit (P-O fit) and person-vocation fit (P-V fit) (Sekiguchi, 2004).

To the interest of present investigation we have describe only person-organization construct of person-environment fit.

Person-organizationfit

Person-organization fit (P-O fit) follows when an industry/ organization fulfils an individual's values, defined as deliberately held desires that incorporate preferences, interests, motives, and goals (Edwards, 1996). Kristof (1996) broadly defined P-O fit as the compatibility between individuals and organizations he further stated that compatibility between people and organizations can occur when: (a) one provides what the other needs, or (b) similar fundamental characteristics are shared, or (c) both.

Kristof (1996) conceptualized person-organization fit by distinguishing between supplementary fit and complementary fit. Further he stated that supplementary fit occurs when both the employee and the work environment possess the same characteristics. In contrast, complementary fit occurs when the employee and the work environment possess different features, but in doing so, supplement something that is absent to the other. That is, with complementary fit, the employee or the organization delivers something that the other individual needs or wants.

Job satisfaction

Job satisfaction was traditionally defined by Cranny, Smith, and Stone (1992) and Locke (1969), as an emotional reaction to the work situation. Locke (1976) has best defined job satisfaction as a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from an appraisal of one'sjob.

Thierry and Koopman-Iwema (1984) definedjob satisfaction as the degree of well-being experienced in the work. Furthermore, they distinguish four perspective ofjob satisfaction:

* Satisfaction may be regarded as the results of behavioural cycle, reflection the individual's way of aiming at attractive outcomes. It represents that which he has achieved and gained.

* Satisfaction may cause changes to occur in the behavioural cycle, partly in the short run (e.g., role perceptions), partly in long run (e.g., greater capacity deemed to be required by the individual).

* Satisfaction may refer to the individual's cognitions of valance outcomes, e.g., to what he intends to achieve or avoid in future.

* Satisfaction may have certain effects, such as concerned with absenteeism, health, turnover, complaints.

Pestonjee (1973), viewingjob satisfaction as constituents of the employees' feeling in the four important areas namely job, management, individual adjustment and social relations. Job includes nature of work, hours of work, fellow workers, opportunities on the job, etc.; management refers supervisory treatment, participation, rewards and punishment, praises and blames, etc. …

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