Academic journal article International Journal of Education and Management Studies

Disaster Management Strategies in India

Academic journal article International Journal of Education and Management Studies

Disaster Management Strategies in India

Article excerpt

Disaster Management is an effort to inquire into the process of a hazard turning to disaster to identify its causes and rectify the same through public policy with minimizing and preventing the damaging impact of a natural or manmade hazard. Disaster management as a subject es sentially deals with management of resources and information and as far as a disastrous event is concerned and also how effectively and seamlessly one coordinates these resources (Kapoor, 2010).

Disaster management, at the individual and organizational level, deals with issues of planning, coordinating, communication and risk management. India has been traditionally vulnerable to natural disasters on account of its unique geographical locations and geological formations. Floods, droughts, cyclones, earthquakes and landslides have been recurrent phenomena. Disaster is a sudden and unfortunate event that brings with it great damage, loss, destruction and devastation to human life as well as property and also hampers the ongoing developmental projects in a particular area being affected by the disaster. The damage caused by disasters is immeasurable and varies with the geographical location, climate and the type of the earth surface/degree ofvulnerability (Arulsamy & Jeyadevi, 2016)

Kinds of disasters

There are two types of disasters namely natural disasters and manmade disasters. The natural disasters such as flood, cyclones, hailstorms, cloudburst, heat and cold waves, snow avalanches, droughts, sea erosion, thunder and lightening, landslides and mud flows, earthquakes, mine fires, dam failures and general fires. Technological/Industrial disasters such as chemical and industrial disasters and nuclear accidents, accidental disasters such as urban and forest fires, oil spill, mine flooding incidents, collapse of huge building structures, bomb blasts, air, road and rail mishap and even biological disasters such as epidemics, pest attacks, cattle epidemic and food poisoning come under the category of man-made disasters (Modh,2009).

Natural disasters

Certain disasters occur in nature, without human provocation.

Floods

Floods are sudden and temporary inundation of a large area as an overflowing of rivers or reservoirs. Floods are caused by rains, high winds, cyclones, tsunami, melting snow or dam burst. Floods can happen gradually or can happen suddenly due to heavy rain, breach of the water storage etc.

Effects: During floods buildings built on weak foundations collapse endangering human lives and property. Damage may also be cause to roads, rail, dams, monuments, crop and cattle. Floods may cause landslides and soil erosion, human and livestock due to drowning, serious injuries and outbreak of epidemics, household articles, utilities such as water supply, sewerage, communication lines, transportation network and railway lines put at risk. Apart from the loss of human and cattle life, floods cause severe devastation of crops.

Flood control: It can achieved through proper planning of flood control and management measures, a rational planning for flood management involves identification the flood prone areas and frequency and magnitude of flooding in flood prone areas, flood forecasting, a-forestation should be encouraged, buildings should be constructed on elevated areas. No major development should be permitted in flood prone areas.

Drought

Drought is an event that results from lower than normal expected rainfall over a season or for some period of time. Shortfall in rains results in drying of rivers, lakes, reservoirs due to excessive withdrawal and poor recharge of ground water and loss of crop yield due to shortage ofwaterare some ofthe main indicators of drought. Causes: In the recent past droughts are increasing due to deforestation and environmental degradation, shortfall of rainfall .If rainfall is deficient by more than 10% of the annual average rainfall, then the condition is said to be draught. …

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