Academic journal article The Journal of Educational Research

Relationship between Social Intelligence and Religious Orientations of University Students

Academic journal article The Journal of Educational Research

Relationship between Social Intelligence and Religious Orientations of University Students

Article excerpt


Social intelligence has an important function that may help in explaining individual differences in personality, motivation and cognition. Social intelligence is versatile and consists of a number of aspects. There are five major domains of social intelligence including social attitude, societal talent, sympathy expertise, and affecting community nervousness. Wong, Day, Maxwell, and Mearza (1995) differentiate cognitive social intelligence (social perception, social awareness and public approaching) from behavioral social aptitude (effectiveness in interactions). They postulate that social perception, social knowledge and efficiency in relations can be differentiating from educational intelligence (Grieve & Mahar, 2013). Social intelligence is an individual's appropriateness for the human being and capability to survive well with life's situations (Wentzel, 1991). It may be defined as social thinking and ability to estimate oneself and others on the basis of social attitudes as well as the social reality. It combines and adjusts relationships between cognitive processes and the indication of social services. Social intelligence is a group of mental abilities related with the processing of social information for solving the problems successfully (Ackerman & Heggestad, 1997). Social intelligence is not the same to the general intelligence and it is developed in a social environment (Yermentaeyeva, Aurenova, Uaidullakyzy, Ayapbergenova, & Muldabekova, 2014)

Religion is also an essential feature which plays an important role in people's personal and social lives. Allport (1967) has divided religious orientations into two categories. Intrinsic religious orientation is to follow religion for internal and spiritual satisfaction. Extrinsic religious orientation was further divided into two categories. Extrinsic personal religious orientation claims that people follow religion for social and personal acceptance in the society. Extrinsic social religious orientation on the other hand postulates that people follow religion for social protection and security (Merrill, Steffen, & Hunter, 2010). McFarland and Warren (1992) point out that people having intrinsic religious orientation are more self-satisfied internally than those having extrinsic religious orientation. Because those who have extrinsic religious orientation use religion for self-defense and getting a good standard in society in order to keep their cultural values alive in the society. In other words, the concern of extrinsic religious orientation is only with external matters of the individual and they use religion for their social, cultural, financial and political matters.

Social intelligence has a great role in the process of learning as well as in social adjustment of our university students. Religion on the other hand is also an important feature of our universities students' social experiences. The current study examines the relationship between social intelligence and religious orientations of university students in Pakistani context.

Research Methodology

The research instrument containing two parts i.e. social intelligence scale and religious orientation inventory was adopted to collect the data. The first part of the instrument (demographic variables) was self-developed by the researcher. Demographic characteristics contain information about age, gender, location, education level, department, semester, previous qualification and their marks in previous degree. Secondly social intelligence scale originally developed by Silvera, Martinussen, and Dahl (2001) was adopted for this study. It had three subscales including social information process, social skills and social awareness. Each subscale contains seven questions. The third part of the questionnaire consists of religious orientation inventory originally developed by Allport and Ros (1967) and revised by Gorsuch and Venable (1983). It had three subscales intrinsic religious orientation, extrinsic personal religious orientation and extrinsic social religious orientation. …

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