Academic journal article International Research Journal of Arts and Humanities

Socio-Economic Factors for Out-of-School Children (A Case Study of Taluka Hala, District Matiari, Sindh)

Academic journal article International Research Journal of Arts and Humanities

Socio-Economic Factors for Out-of-School Children (A Case Study of Taluka Hala, District Matiari, Sindh)

Article excerpt

Introduction

The development of the world is not possible without education. According to United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO, 2012) global monitoring report, if all children are given to equal access to education, the global per-capita income can be increased to 23% over the next 40 years. In order to get the real picture on the education, the UNICEF and the UNESCO Institute for Statistics established Global Initiative on Out-Of-School Children to address the urgent need for robust, reliable data and support the development of strategies to improve access to education across the globe. According to the statistical data published by UNESCO Institute of Statistics (UIS), the number of Out-Of-School children was about sixty one million in 2010. After Sub Saharan Africa, second largest home for Out-Of-School children is South and West Asia where sixteen million children are considered to be Out-Of-School. Looking at South Asia region, Pakistan has the highest number of Out-Of-School children containing 34.4% of the country's primary school age population that makes about 6.6 million children. One in every four children is Out-Of-School-children in Pakistan in the age group of 5-11 years (UNESCO, 2008). In a report published by Federal Bureau of Statistics on National child labor, the estimated number of children aged 5-14 years is about 40 million in Pakistan, out of them 3.3 million are working children. Gender based dropout is also high in pour communities in the country. According to Cynthia Lloyd, et al. (CB Lloyd, 2009), in Pakistan, not all young women face the same educational weaknesses of the country. Urban class young women belonging to high salaried families are fortunate to finish their education goals. But in low income families situation is different. One of the major issue is security of the girls. Parents worry about the safety of their girls. Ashiq Hussain et al (Ashiq Hussain, 2011) studied the causes of high dropout rate at the primary level in Pakistan. The role of educated parents in educating the children also cannot be over ignored. Educated and literate parents can contribute in the overall level of education of the nation. Behrman et al (Behrman, 1999) conducted a report in India.

In this study it can be seen that economic factor is a dominant factor behind out of school children phenomena. Rajan Roy (Roy, 2000) concludes that by utilising data from Pakistan, there is a positive association between hours of child labour and poverty. He further describe that there is a negative association between child schooling and poverty. Availability of schools is also effects dropout factors. J. Holmes (Holmes, 1999) reports that in Pakistan, the distance to the nearest primary school bears no relation to boys' years of schooling but the distances to middle and secondary school are significantly and negatively related to educational attainment especially for girls.

UNESCO categorize Out-Of-School children into three distinct categories comprises of, first, children who have enrolled in school but left school at some stage, second, children who are not yet enrolled in school but will join school in near future and third, children who never enrolled in school. According to a report published in 2011 bi-Annual Status of Education Report (ASER), in Sindh province, there is about 29.5% of province's school going population is Out-Of-School. The report observes this number is larger than other parts of the country (Asma Bajwa, 2011). In Sindh, Kashmore and Thatta districts have the highest percentage (56%) of Out-Of-School children. Overall Sindh province is facing major challenges in promoting enrolment especially in rural areas. There are many Out-Of-School children throughout the region (estimated at approximately 2.3 million aged 5-9) (2013); moreover, those who are able to attend school often drop out, while learning outcomes tend to be weak. This thesis focuses on enrolment trends in Sindh, with a particular focus on rural areas of Matiari district. …

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