Academic journal article Iranian Journal of Public Health

An Ethical Review of Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide

Academic journal article Iranian Journal of Public Health

An Ethical Review of Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide

Article excerpt

Introduction

Does a man, in addition to the right to live, have a right to die? More specifically, does he have a right to a dignified death? Is a deprivation of life from the mercy reasons a crime or unpunishable act? The answer to these questions varies from country to country. On the one hand, if a state decides to legalize this form of the deprivation of life, the key question is what are the reasons for it? On the other hand, in a case when legislator takes an opposite view, we have the same question (1). Therefore, euthanasia, and in recent time physician-assisted suicide, are inexhaustible topics for reflection and observation of the different aspects of medicine, law, sociology, philosophy, religion and morality (according to some authors, this debate is one of the ten hotly moral issues (2), but also one of the major problems in the national and international health limits. By bypassing defining these two very famous terms at this point in time, we will just point out that the direct active euthanasia is a medical act directed to the deprivation of life (hereinafter: ADE), while a physician-assisted suicide is an act of the physician where he provides to the patient a medicament for taking life (hereinafter: PAS).

It is not clear when the man for the first time came to the idea of euthanasia (3). There have been many discussions in the United States and United Kingdom, culminated in 1906, when Ohio attempted to pass a law to legalize euthanasia (4). Movements to the legalization of the ADE and PAS have marked the last few decades, but we can notice that legislators across the world more easily decriminalize PAS, as a milder form of the deprivation of life. This is primarily evident on the American continent, where a few states decriminalized PAS, although the Supreme Court held that there is no constitutional right to ADE and PAS, nor the ban on the mentioned acts. Parallel to this process, there are strict criticisms of such actions, which have the ultimate aim of eliminating criminal penalties for persons who assist in the deprivation of the life of the patient, who is terminally ill at his request (5). If we take the example of England, the constant change of the attitudes of the British Medical Association and Royal College of Physicians, that varies from the strict opposition to the neutral position and vice versa, shows that is hard for them to accept any attitude regarding taking one's life and to take any constant attitude whatsoever (6).

Different viewpoints in some countries caused a different approach to the legislative treatment of these two issues (7, 8), but their solutions are, due to the many activities in this area, constantly reviewed (9). For example, Belgium in 2014 went far ahead when approved ADE for children, considering them as competent for such decision (10, 11). Both procedures are in the majority of countries in the world illegal, but they exist everywhere (12).

However, in this paper, we will mainly deal with the observation of the ADE and PAS from ethical point of view, where we devote due attention to the criticism of a different regulation of ADE and passive euthanasia (hereinafter: PE), which is inexhaustible field for everyone who seriously takes this matter. In order to contribute to existed theoretical and practical considerations, we conducted a survey among physicians in Serbia on this topic.

Materials and Methods

The data for the current analysis have been derived from the broader research project whose aim was to identify occurrence, distribution, and opinions of the physicians about euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide. In this paper, we analyzed part of the obtained data. Research is primarily based on quantitative research approach, and data were collected using a short survey, created specifically for the purpose of this study. In the civilized countries, physicians are increasingly faced with demands to assist patients in committing suicide or to apply euthanasia (13, 14). …

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