Academic journal article Ife Psychologia

Influence of Parenting Styles on Psychological Well-Being and School Adjustment of Secondary School Adolescents in Bayelsa State, Nigeria

Academic journal article Ife Psychologia

Influence of Parenting Styles on Psychological Well-Being and School Adjustment of Secondary School Adolescents in Bayelsa State, Nigeria

Article excerpt

Introduction

Adolescent development has emerged as a major area of education and psychological research (Akinade and Sokan 2006) Adolescents have long been regarded as a group of people who are searching for and desire to find some forms of identity and meaning in and to life. They have also been regarded as unique group with a wide range of difficulties and challenges in their transition to adulthood. Adolescents have difficulty facing major decisions as they enter Senior Secondary (SSS) because at this level, there is the need to determine adolescents state of future adulthood. Also, this state of transition from Junior Secondary 111 (JS3) to Senior Secondary 1(SS1), the adolescents are in the process of discovering the social word, learning new ways to relate to others, not only in sharing intimate experience, or by falling in love, but also when he or she sets values which is also a new set of development at this age. (Adeyemo and Torubeli (2006). Thus, it could be hypothesized that, the better the adjusted adolescent are in this transition, the better will be the adolescent present and future integration into school system, effective study habit and attainment of desired academic performance.

The transition of secondary school adolescent from JSS 111 to SS1 could also be traumatic. This is because, at the stage the adolescent move from a specific school environment of familiar peers to a new and more demanding milieu of more specific teacher -centered pedagogy. Students have to re-establish their identities, including their sense of efficacy, social connectedness and academic status within an enlarged, heterogeneous network of new curriculum, which is highly loaded couple with subjects selection. Thus it is expected that the parenting patterns that the pupils are exposed to will assist them to adjust to the new environment.

Darling & Steinberg and Awoyemi & Nwagwu (2005) defined parenting styles as the emotional climate in which parents raise their children and they have been characterized by dimensions of parental responsiveness and demandingness. Bamrind in woolfork (2010) conducted some extensive known and influential typological approach. Through the multiple studies, he identified three primary parental typologies: Authoritative, Authoritarian, and Permissiveness. Baumrind in wool fork (2010) viewed authoritative style to include the following elements: expectation for mature behavior from child and clear standard setting ; firm enforcement of rules and standards, using commands and sanctions when necessary; encouragement of the child's independence and individuality; and open communication between parents and children such as parents listening to children's point of view, as well as expressing their own; encouragement of verbal give and take; and finally the recognition of rights of both parents children. Darling & Steinberg and Awoyemi & Nwagwu (2015) stated that tend to be warm and accepting, democratic in decisionmaking, firm in establishing behavioral guidelines, and score high on measures of warmth, responsiveness, and children reared by authoritative parents tend to fear better than children raised by parents who employ permissive or authoritarian parenting styles In most aspects of development, (Baumrind, 1989, 1993, Awoyemi & Nwagu, 2005). During the years of middle childhood, found that children, reared by authoritative parents excelled in areas of independence, creativity, persistence, social skills, academic competence, leadership skills, social perspective- taking, and self-esteem, are more socially confident and competent, are more self-reliant, and have greater respect for their parents (Baumrind, 1978,1991). They also increased academic performance. (Donbusch, Ritter, Leiderman, Roberts & Farleigh, (1987); possess higher levels of self-esteem, engage in fewer acts of deviant behavior, and exhibit more prosaically behavior Avenevoli, (1999). According to Jeanne (2010), authoritative parenting, with less physical punishment, produces the most positive results and the fewest problems for children. …

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