Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Effects of Oat Bran and Jogging on Aerobic Capacity, Lipid Profile and Antioxidant Parameters in Young Sedentary Males

Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Effects of Oat Bran and Jogging on Aerobic Capacity, Lipid Profile and Antioxidant Parameters in Young Sedentary Males

Article excerpt

Introduction

Body triglycerides come from excess dietary carbohydrate, proteins and fats which are converted into triglycerides. Whereas, cholesterol comes from meat-based food such as eggs or beef. The liver also synthesises its own cholesterol from the saturated fat directly. High intake of dietary fat can also indirectly stimulate reabsorption of cholesterol back into the blood, increasing blood cholesterol level. Lipids are hydrophobic molecules and therefore they form a complex with protein, known as lipoproteins, in order to be soluble and able to be transported in the blood (McArdle et al., 2010; National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III), 2002; Tortora & Derrickson, 2009). Three major lipoproteins - very-low density lipoproteins (VLDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) are detected in the fasting serum. VLDL particles are triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and elevated serum triglycerides is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease (CHD). LDL cholesterol contributes 60-70% of the total serum cholesterol. Elevated serum LDL cholesterol level is associated with atherosclerosis while HDL cholesterol protects against the development of atherosclerosis (NCEP ATP III, 2002).

Free radicals can influence our body system either positively or negatively. In immune system, neutrophils and macrophages release free radicals to destroy foreign substances as part of the body's defence mechanism. On the other hand , free radicals can alter the structures of lipid, protein and DNA (Finaud et al., 2006; Tortora & Derrickson, 2009). Antioxidants are the compounds that can suppress free radicals and their damaging effects. If there is an imbalance between the actions of antioxidants and free radicals, it will lead to an oxidative stress state such as cell impairment (Sen, 2001). Oxidative stress has been known as the source of human aging and leads to the accumulation of major age-related diseases (Dato et al., 2013). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one type of the free radicals. There are a few locations or sources of ROS production. For example, production of energy or adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in mitochondria for muscle contraction during exercise is also associated with ROS production which in turn can expose the mitochondria to oxidative stress damage (Finaud et al., 2006).

Previous studies have shown that improper diet and sedentary lifestyle contribute to detrimental health effect such as coronary artery disease (CAD) (Lakka et al., 2003; McArdle et al., 2010; Plowman & Smith, 2006; Yusuf et al., 2001) . These two causal factors lead to high cholesterol levels and oxidative stress imbalance in the body over time, and eventually increase the risk of CAD (McArdle et al., 2010; Plowman & Smith, 2006; Stocker & Keaney, 2004; Weiss & Landauer, 2003; Yusuf et al., 2001). Moreover, previous studies have also reported that sedentary living with less physical activity can also result in atrophy of muscle proteins (Powers et al., 2012; Powers et al., 2007) and lowered cardiorespiratory fitness at the same time (Lakka et al., 2003). Improper diet and a sedentary lifestyle are among the modifiable risk factors which can be avoided or prevented (NCEP ATP III, 2002). Thus, a simple strategy to improve the health-related quality of life among the public is to change the lifestyle by adopting a physically active lifestyle while consuming adequate nutrition (Anderson & Gustafson, 1988; Anderson et al., 1984; Anderson et al., 1991; Bartram et al., 1992), and it is believed that the cholesterol-lowering effect is mainly due to the action of ß-glucan (Davidson et al., 1991). The US Food and Drug Administration (1997) recommended that an individual consumes 3 g of ß-glucan daily to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). NCEP ATP III (2002) also suggested to include food with high viscous fibre content to reduce one's LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. …

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