Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Social Pressure Factors Aimed at Football Referees in Turkey: A Study on the 2nd League, 3rd League and Amateur League Referees

Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Social Pressure Factors Aimed at Football Referees in Turkey: A Study on the 2nd League, 3rd League and Amateur League Referees

Article excerpt

Introduction

The referees, as well as the other actors of football like coaches and managers, are of vital importance. The critical position of the referee in the football game is to determine the states of the game with the exact decisions he gives applying the rational rules that draw the boundaries of the game. The referees have a distinctive function inside the game as the football player, the goalkeeper or the coach in the field. Besides, when the objections to him made by the other actors of the football are taken into account, it can be understood better that performing as a referee is a very tough job. It should be marked that such a circumstance in other sports branches apart from football is not at this level.

In the time of the football game takes part on TV via various program formats except the broadcasted matches and the referees' decisions are evaluated using electronic photocell drawings during the football commentary and discussion programs aired especially after the match, the referee profession is seen to become much harder. This process reinforces the difficulties of the referees related to this job together with presenting the faults that escape the referee's notice obviously with the help of computer technologies. Confirming decisively in the commentary programs that the referee has given a wrong penalty or offside decision in the match influences not only the fans or football clubs (football players, coach, managers etc.) which interest that match but also the general opinion that will be formed about coming matches the referee will conduct.

The fact that the profession of football referee is not carried out in relatively safe areas such as office clerk, teachers, soldiers, workers, engineers etc. brings "Social Pressures" with regard to the profession of football referee into mind. Though the pressures or potential risks that the worker can be exposed to in a shiftmade within 8-10 hours at a workplace are estimated in an average way, the outcomes of the referee's 90- minute-match shiftcan be very serious in terms of various pressure factors which he will encounter according to the importance of the match. The observations that reveal the presence of the physical assaults and blasphemy by the fans against the referees during the game; harsh objections by the players; the threats by the club managers; the criticism on the referee decisions that have almost daily coverage in sports media, all indicate the problems which can possibly be encountered by the referees. In our country, the referees might be harshly and undeservedly criticized repeatedly in sports programs even by those who are neither specialists of sports/football nor sportswriters. However, it should be stated that those football programs dominating the sports media are interested in Super League mostly and include particularly the four great clubs. When the actors such as the sports media notably, club managers and the other elements are considered, refereeing conditions in 2nd, 3rd Professional leagues and amateur leagues are thought to be different when compared with the conditions of Super League and 1st League refereeing conditions.

The subject of this study is composed of the possible social stress that 2nd, 3rd and amateur league referees might be exposed to. Social stress on the referees has been problematized in this study considering the subjects of that stress caused. The objective of the study is to find out the effects of the social stress elements on the referees of the two minor Professional leagues and the amateur league. The agents that are possibly to cause stress before, during and after the game on the referees are thought to be football players, who are of the other agents in social context of football; fans, club managers, coaches and sports media. In this study, accompanied by acquiring quantitative data in the "application-questionnaire" section, the content and the aim of this study is planned within the context of "qualitative survey". …

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