Academic journal article The Canadian Journal of Higher Education

Sustainable Implementation of Interprofessional Education Using an Adoption Model Framework

Academic journal article The Canadian Journal of Higher Education

Sustainable Implementation of Interprofessional Education Using an Adoption Model Framework

Article excerpt

Effective change management requires synchronized efforts at different levels: (1) the individuals carrying out the vision towards change, (2) the teams of individuals working together to drive the culture, and (3) the systems level transformation to motivate and guide groups to permit certain types of behavior and encourage the formation of commitment to change. (Borduas et al., 2006, p. 16).

The overall goal of interprofessional education for collaborative person-centred practice (IECPCP) is to modify behaviours and ways of working together to improve healthcare outcomes, service efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and staff satisfaction. Transformation from conventional health service delivery models to IECPCP is complex and requires "harmonization of motivations" within and between academia, governments, healthcare delivery sectors, and consumers (Borduas et al., 2006, p. 16). To support these changes, interprofessional education (IPE) brings together trainees from different health professions to learn with, from, and about each other (CAIPE, 2002). Despite widespread support for the idea of integrating IPE into the training of health professionals, there is little information available about the best way to effect these curricular changes. When an organization is considering adoption, assimilation, and implementation of an innovation such as IPE, Borduas et al. (2006) have suggested the use of an adoption model to provide guidance to organizational change. Adoption models draw attention to the complex attributes, processes, and interactions between the innovation and its users, communication and its influence, as well as internal and external contexts (Greenhalgh, Robert, Macfarlane, Bate, & Kyriakidou, 2004). More specifically, Borduas et al. (2006) recommended examining the adoption of IPE within higher education institutions using a change management or adoption framework such as Greenhalgh's Diffusion of Innovations in Service Organizations. Clark (2013) proposed the Transtheoretical Model of Institutional Change, as it acknowledges the complexity of change, and it identifies important theoretical elements, developmental processes, and forces, as well as readiness and strategies of change. Further, Borduas et al. (2006) pointed out that the use of such adoption model frameworks to facilitate the diffusion of IPE within higher education institutions appears to be lacking in the literature.

Despite the mounting literature describing IPE innovations, recommendations for successful implementation are inconsistent across studies. Studies examining IPE implementation often include the importance of leadership commitment, dedicated resources, and organizational structure; awareness and common understanding of IPE; open communication; student engagement; and faculty ambassadors as key factors for developing a comprehensive and integrative IPE curriculum (Barnsteiner, Disch, Hall, Mayer, & Moore, 2007; Bennett et al., 2011; Blue, Mitcham, Smith, Raymond, & Greenberg, 2010; Djukic, Fulmer, Adams, Lee, & Triola, 2012; Evans, Cashman, Page, & Garr, 2011; MacKenzie & Merritt, 2013). There remains a dearth of evidence informing the bigger challenge of sustainable scale-up within academia and its interdependency with the health services sector. Efforts and research aimed at understanding how higher education institutions use an adoption model framework to facilitate the diffusion of IPE within and between organizations and sectors would begin to address this gap in the literature.

The University of Manitoba (UofM) IPE Initiative (the Initiative) chose "IECPCP: An Evolving Framework" (the IECPCP framework) (D'Amour & Oandasan, 2005) (Figure 1) as the framework to guide the implementation of IPE within its organization, because of its specific emphasis on IECPCP and because it was the framework recommended by researchers for the 2005-2008 Health Canada-funded IECPCP projects (Oandasan et al. …

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