Academic journal article Ife Psychologia

Influence of Job Demands on Psychological Well-Being of Health Workers in Ondo State: Moderating Role of Emotional Intelligence

Academic journal article Ife Psychologia

Influence of Job Demands on Psychological Well-Being of Health Workers in Ondo State: Moderating Role of Emotional Intelligence

Article excerpt

The effective and efficient performance of health workers depend on how well they could cope with the demands of their job. This is important in order to have a healthy psychological growth. Psychological well-being is very important as it is considered to be the composite measure of an individual's physical, mental and social well-being (Ryff, 1993). Unhealthy psychological well-being may result into occupational burnouts, fatigue, low level of self-concept, and absenteeism (Ryan & Deci, 2001; Ryff & keyes, 1995). Psychological well-being (PWB) is a subjective term and has been differently conceptualised by different scholars. It includes different aspects of everyday experience. Researchers have implicated psychological well-being to be an essential features of positive evaluation of one's self, one's life, and the belief that life is purposeful and meaningful (Adegoke, 2014; Ryan & Deci, 2001; Ryff, 1989, 1993; Ryff & Keyes, 1995; Ryff & Singer, 2006).

PWB includes the possession of quality relations with others and the capacity to effectively manage one's life in the surrounding world, and at the same time have a sense of self determination (Ryan & Deci, 2001). To Diener (2000), psychological well-being refers to people's evaluation of their life in both affective and cognitive terms.

Based on Ryff (1989) theory of psychological well-being, PWB is basically defined from six major dimensions. The dimensions are (a) personal growth: defined as the feeling of continuous growth and development as an individual, (b) self-acceptance, which refers to the positive assessment of an individual's life, (c) positive relations with others: which refers to establishing quality relations with other individuals, (d) purpose in life: the individual's belief that life is meaningful and purposeful, (e) autonomy: being able to make decisions by oneself, and (f) environmental mastery: the ability of the individual to direct his/her life and the world around him/her. To Ryff (1989), psychological well-being is better captured using the above six dimensions each of which describe factors and challenges that constitute an individual's positive functioning and well-being. In order to have a good psychological well-being, health employees are expected to possess all these dimensions for effective functioning.

It is a general belief that health workers are faced with a lot of job stress due to the nature of their job (Adegoke, 2014). When these stresses are not effectively managed, they may lead to an unhealthy psychological well-being which may make their performances at work to be compromised as a result of the demands placed on them by their jobs.

Job demand which refers to how employees perceive those psychological, physical, social or organisational aspects of their job that are required to meeting up to the standard of the organisation (Demerouti & Bakker, 2011) may affect the psychological well-being of health workers negatively. This may be because of the present situation in Nigeria where there is inadequate number of employees in the health sector, (Mojoyinola & Ajala, 2007). This makes the available ones to be faced with a lot of work load. Apart from this, health workers may experience high level of job demands from their job because it is psychologically demanding i.e. having to treat patients of different degrees of injuries and also attending to those with psychological problems such as mentally derailed individuals. According to Karasek (1979) model, demanding work environments, such as an extensive work load will often provoke stress and undermine intrinsic motivation if coupled with limited autonomy and low level of emotional intelligence. Similarly, the job demands - resources model assumes that job demands such as elevated levels of pressure, undue expectations, and conflicting requirements, tend to provoke burnout and compromised psychological well-being (Karasek, 1979).

However, an employee whose level of emotional intelligence is high might be able to develop strategies through which he/she can manage the situation in such a way that his/her psychological well-being won't be compromised. …

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