Academic journal article European Journal of Sustainable Development

Bricolage Concept in Risk Culture Assessment

Academic journal article European Journal of Sustainable Development

Bricolage Concept in Risk Culture Assessment

Article excerpt

1.Introduction

Running a competitive business in modern conditions requires the businessmen to analyze many, and often interdependent factors. However, as T.Baker and R.Nelson (2005) show a large portion of businesses (mainly from the small and medium size enterprise sector) focus their actions mainly on the owned resources and achieved profits in a short-time perspective. They rarely search for chances generated by the market, overlooking the importance of strategic planning. Such a formulation of the efficiency of their actions is possible due to their natural flexibility in terms of adjusting in the event of a change in the functioning factors, and the ability to use new resources when these become available (Okrçglicka, Gorzeñ-Mitka, Ogrean 2015, Haviernikova 2014). It's also needed to be stressed out, that such an approach to running a business is related to accepting a high level of uncertainty. The concept including the above mentioned characteristics of modern entrepreneurship is bricolage which, as Di Domenico, Haugh, and Tracey (2010) show, in case of insufficient resources and a flexible approach to the conditions in which the enterprise functions, allows to create an added value.

The bricolage concept has been initially used to describe the hermetization of the processes of the hybridization of culture (meaning a description of specific behaviors in closed societies) by Claude Levi-Strauss (1969) in 1962. It concerned the description of the actions of a community which - from a collection of elements of the owned resources, sometimes strange and heterogeneous, collected according to the imperative principle "it might come in handy" - has the ability to mobilize its practical knowledge in a different way than might be suggested by the general theoretical indications determining how the resources should be used.

A number of bricolage definitions may be found in literature (the author has discussed it widely in Gorzeh-Mitka 2015a). And so Ciborra (1996, 2002) among others, uses the concept of bricolage to describe "mechanisms, procedures, forms and unwritten rules existing in the company, used as means to build temporary, informal forms and components of the organizational structure". In turn, Baker and others (Baker, Miner, Easley 2003; Baker, Nelson 2005, Steffens, Senyard, Baker 2009) interpret bricolage as:

- an existing network of social contacts used as means used to construct the company architecture (Baker, Miner, Eesley 2003);

- creating from current resources (meaning tools and materials available at hand) new products or services (Baker, Nelson 2005);

- the process of using and changing the currently owned resources through using or combining them once again or differently (Steffens, Senyard, Baker 2009).

Zahra, Gedajlovic, Neubaum, Shulman (2009) show that bricolage describes behaviors of businessmen who, by acting locally, discover the possibilities of local resources. The significance of limited resources in connection with the ability to improvise by the members of the organization are in this process stressed out by Di Domenico, Haugh, Tracey (2010). However in Gundry's (Gundry et al. 2011) work bricolage is presented as a distinctive concept connecting a creative adaptation and manipulating resources such as materials, finances and human resources (Sipa 2011), in order to solve problems or take advantage of new possibilities. Already a casual overview of the bricolage definitions in literature in terms of management, indicates that two key features of the process are stressed in them, and namely - what can be done with the currently owned resources and what possible recombination of these resources is possible in order to achieve new goals. Furthermore, it stresses out that bricolage refers to identifying the solution (solutions) of the problem, mainly through experimenting (often connected to improvisation), and concerns combining existing resources with the use of easily available skills and using existing capabilities. …

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