Academic journal article ABNF Journal

Quality of Life Considerations during Cancer Treatment in Invasive Ductal Carcinoma Patients: A Systemic Review

Academic journal article ABNF Journal

Quality of Life Considerations during Cancer Treatment in Invasive Ductal Carcinoma Patients: A Systemic Review

Article excerpt

Introduction

Cancer is second only to heart disease as a leading cause of death among all ages of women and men (Siegel, Miller, & Jemal, 2015). Breast cancer itself is the number two cause of death among cancers in women (Siegel, et al., 2014). Breast cancer incidence is often associated with poor quality of life (QOL) for those who are suffering (Hershman, Kushi, Hillyer, Coromilis, Buono, Lamerato, Bovbjerd, Mandelblatt,Tsai, Jacobson, Wright, & Neugut, 2016; Howard-Anderson, Ganz, Bower, & Stanton, 2012; Jeste, Liu, Rissling.Trofimenko, and Natarajan, Parker, & Ancoli-Israel, 2013). The World Health Organization (WHO) defines quality of life as "an individual's perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards, and concerns" (WHO, 2016). QOL can compare between two levels: the objective level and the subjective level. Objectivity refers to the tangible components that make up the basic level of QOL, which includes needs such as air, food, and environment. Subjectivity refers to the intangible aspects of QOL, which includes the level of satisfaction with which individuals respond to the respective QOL factors (Bulley, Gaal, Coutts, Blyth, Jack, Chetty, Barber, & Tan, 2013).

Patients go through intense experiences that affect their daily living while being treated for breast cancer (Young, Weltzien, Kwan, Castillo, Caan, & Kroenke, 2014). The purpose of this systematic review was to identify and understand both the positive and negative QOL factors throughout breast cancer treatment as well as post breast cancer treatment. The information gathered from this study may be applied to medical practices in order to increase the QOL for metastatic invasive ductal carcinoma cancer (IDC) patients.

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) (2013) defines métastasés as "the spread of cancer from one part of the body to another." The metastatic process includes the cancer cells breaking away from their original location, traveling through areas of the body such as blood and lymph, and forming new cancer cells (tumors) in different parts of the body (Geetha & Selvi, 2015). The newly formed tumors are known as metastatic tumors which contain similar cellular components found in the original cancer cells (Chou & Friedman, 2016). IDC is the most common type of invasive breast cancer (Carbognin, Sperduti, Brunelli, Marcolini, Nortilli, Pilotto, Zampiva, Merler, Filrio, Filippi, Manfrin, Pellini, Bonette, Pollini,Tortora, & Bria, 2016). IDC develops in the lining of the milk ducts and metastasizes to the surrounding tissue (Hinck & Nathke, 2014). Furthermore, IDC can metastasize through the blood and lymphatic systems to other parts of the body (NCI ,2013).

The findings of this systematic literature review may also be useful for physicians (oncologists in particular), as they discuss the course of treatment with their IDC patients. Physicians will be able to identify the best practices to implement as is fitting for the patient's preferences. Other clinicians, such as nurses, may find this review assistive in the daily care of the patients in the hospital. In addition, healthcare professionals will be able to create and execute policies that focus towards IDC patients and the increase of their QOL. Data for this review were gathered using PubMed (queries MEDLINE), Academie Search Complete, and Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL). The search criteria focused on QOL and treatment, with respect to metastasis of IDC. Articles based on positive and negative QOL factors, and the data were summarized.

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Research databases were queried from PubMed, Academic Search Complete, and CINAHL using search terms "("invasive ductal carcinoma" OR "ductal carcinoma") AND (treatment OR medication) AND quality of life AND metastasis." Several exclusion criteria were also specified: duplicates were excluded that were non-germane articles, and articles not available in English. …

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