Academic journal article Modern Journal of Language Teaching Methods

Renderi'ng of (Im) Politeness Utterances into Persian Based on Brown and Levinson's Theory: The Case of Brave Animation

Academic journal article Modern Journal of Language Teaching Methods

Renderi'ng of (Im) Politeness Utterances into Persian Based on Brown and Levinson's Theory: The Case of Brave Animation

Article excerpt

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Over the years, many features of Brown and Levinson's politeness model in translation have been assessed, challenged, and changed. Translators do not only face with linguistic problems: they sometimes face with pragmatic problems in rendering. The study of politeness has become an important aspect of pragmatic

competence in translation. Mills (2003) defined politeness as "the expression of the speakers' intention to mitigate faces threats carried by certain face threatening acts toward another", (p. 6).

Some scholars have been interested in the study of politeness as a linguistics phenomenon (Brown & Levinson, 1987; Geis, 1982; Lakoff, 1982; Scollon & Scollon, 2001). Foley (1997, p.270) referred to politeness as "a battery of social skills whose goal is to ensure that everyone feels affirmed in a social interaction".Politeness model explains how the threat to the social image of the addresses can be reduces (Mills, 2003). Firstly expressed in 1987 by Brown and Levinson, politeness model has since extended academia's perception of politeness (Gino, 2001). Fraser (1990) describes politeness as a conversational deal which is as a set of responsibilities that participants must assume and can be discussed during a dialogue.

Brown and Levinson (1987) suggested a politeness theory which was rooted in social communication and looked at the strategic options of people in interactions to mirror the cross-cultural variability offered in interaction. Polite and impolite are not essentially the opposite and there are no clear delineation for what forms politeness or impoliteness (Locher & Watts, 2005). Politeness theory expanded byBrown and Levinson was rooted in the concept of face being described by Goffman as the ''positive social value a person effectively claims for himself by his or her self-presentation'' (Goffman, 1967, p.5). Also, face being described by ''one of an individuals' highly endowed belonging (Deufsch, 1961). As a result, keeping this possession is a key to sustaining one's self-confidence.

Drawing upon the same theory and concepts , a number of studies (Adel, Davoudi, & Ramezanzadeh, 2016; Akbari, 2014; Eshghinejad & Moini, 2016; Koike, 2014; Pishghadam & Navari, 2012; Rad & Razmjou, 2013; Setyaningsih & Kurniasih, 2007; Winerta & Hamzah, 2012) have been so far conducted on the translation of polite/impolite utterances in films and stories. However, they have missed to consider four strategies of face, i.e., on-record, positive, negative and off-record or they have worked on films and texts. To the best of researcher's knowledge, there seems to be few or no studies which have investigated rendering of all four face types of face in the source and target animations. Also, the type and the frequency of politeness strategies in the source and target animations have been a stark issue.

Besides, every culture has its own literary concepts. Some concepts are common in foreign cultures, whereas they do not have any equivalence in the target culture and the translator might face difficulty in translating them. One of these pragmatic problems is rendering of politeness behavior.Politeness rendering in dubbed films or animations is a case in point that can be investigated to find out how the source and target utterances appear.

Taking into account the above-mentioned points, this study examined type of (im) politeness behavior based on Brown and Levinsons' theory in the source and target version of an animation named "Brave", and also assessed the difference in terms of the frequency of occurrence of politeness or impoliteness strategies between the source and target "Brave".

In line with the problem statement, the research objectives are:

1) to Find (im) politeness utterances in the source animation, Brave, according to the categorizations proposed by Brown and Levinson. …

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