Academic journal article Modern Journal of Language Teaching Methods

On the Impact of One-Way vs. Two-Way Tasks on Iranian Intermediate Efl Learners' Collocation Competence

Academic journal article Modern Journal of Language Teaching Methods

On the Impact of One-Way vs. Two-Way Tasks on Iranian Intermediate Efl Learners' Collocation Competence

Article excerpt

1.Introduction

There has currently been a high emphasis on the practice of Communicative Approach in language teaching. This English teaching approach highlights the importance of Learner - Centered classrooms where teachers' talking time is minimized and students' talking time is increased to the utmost (Richards & Renandya, 2002, p.49). Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT), as a sub-branch of Communicative approach in language teaching, has also taken the attention of a lot of scholars in recent years. This approach bases itself on the implementation of a great variety of tasks and procedures to produce effective results in L2 acquisition (Ellis, 2003; Richards, 2001). Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT) refers to "an approach/method based on the use of tasks a s the core unit of planning and instruction in language teaching, as a logical development of Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)" (Richards & Rodgers, 2001, p.223). In current pedagogical discussions, the task-based approach has achieved something of the status of a new orthodoxy; teachers in a wide range of settings are being told how they should teach. Furthermore, most newly published textbooks and papers are being recognized as emphasizing task-based instruction (Ellis, 2003; Richards & Rodgers, 2001). Clearly, whatever a task-based approach means, it is a good thing (Littlewood, 2004). The effect of TBLT on the development of different skills and components of language has been studied by many researchers (e.g. Bygate, Skehan & Swain, 2001; Ellis, 2003; Johnson, 2003; Leaver & Willis, 2005; Long, 2015; Nunan, 2004; Shehada, 2005; Shintani, 2014; Van den Branden, 2006). However, no research project has directly investigated the impact of TBLT on EFL learners' collocation competence yet. To this end, the present study is aimed to compare the effect of two well-known types of task i.e. one-way and two-way (Ellis, 2003; Long, 2015) on Iranian intermediate EFL learners' collocation competence.

2.Review of the Literature

2.1. Task-Based Language Teaching

Task-based language teaching (TBLT) was developed as an alternative to traditional methods of language teaching. TBLT aims to develop learners' communicative competence by engaging them in meaning-focused communication through the performance of tasks. However, TBLT is not just concerned with developing "fluency in the communicative process"; it aims to develop learners' linguistic competence and their interactional competence (Ellis, 2014, p.135). TBLT has received increasing support from a number of SLA researchers. A number of books - Candlin and Murphy (1987), Crookes and Gass (1993), Skehan (1998, 2011), Ellis (2003), Mayo (2007), Eckerth and Siekmann (2008) and Samuda and Bygate (2008) - have expounded the theoretical and research basis for TBLT. It has also received strong support from teacher educators such as Prabhu (1987), Estaire and Zanon (1994), Willis (1996) and Nunan (1989, 2004).According to Willis (2007, p.2) "task -based language teaching (TBLT) helps language learners make real efforts to communicate as best as they can in the foreign language which they are learning".

2.1.1. One-way task

In one-way tasks the information is held by a single person and there is no chance for negotiation of meaning or interaction between students. In these tasks, the burden of completing the task successfully is placed on the participant who holds the information. Long (2015, p.241) defines this type of task as "task, such as opinion-gap tasks, where information exchange is optional, as when learners express their views on an issue, a task where one party holds all the information needed for task completion (e.g., has & describe a picture that a classmate, who does not have it, must draw or identify)".

2.1.2. Two-way task

Two-way tasks are the activity of the communicative approach. Also known as an "information gap" activity, it pushes learners to communicate with each other in order to retrieve information to complete a task. …

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