Academic journal article Modern Journal of Language Teaching Methods

Needs Analysis of Seventh Grade of High School (Course One) in English Language Classroom

Academic journal article Modern Journal of Language Teaching Methods

Needs Analysis of Seventh Grade of High School (Course One) in English Language Classroom

Article excerpt


Successful teaching need the consideration of learner factors such as knowledge, views of learning, learning styles and motivation (Richards,2012).Need analysis is useful for needs of learners at different levels of proficiency and with a variety of objectives in mind(Stern,1992). The purpose of this survey was to investigate the needs of a specific group of seventh grade students in high school. In follows a brief discussion of needs analysis, syllabus design, material development, CLT, and a brief literature review.

Needs Analysis

Needs analysis (also known as needs assessment) has an important function in designing and implementing any language course for both, English for Specific Purposes (ESP) or general English course. Needs analysis refers to the activities for collecting information to develop a curriculum for the needs of a particular group of learners (Iwai et al, 1999). Students' needs in ESP are usually explained in terms of performance, what the leaner will be able to do with the language at the end of a study course, but in a general English course the aim is mastery of the language that can be tested on a global language test, in ESP course, learners are prepared to do a specific task or set of tasks (Richards, Jack C, 2001).

Furthermore, obtaining input from the students about a planning program through a needs analysis is essential to the design, implementation, evaluation, and revision of the program (Richards, 1990; Savignon, 1997). In needs analysis, needs are explained as; "objective and subjective (Briendly, 1989); perceived and felt (Berwick, 1989); target situation, goal oriented and learning, process-oriented and product-oriented (Briendly, 1989)".

Syllabus design

Syllabus is the nature of language and learning, it is useful for both teacher and learners. Hutchinson and Water (1987) define syllabus as follow:

" At its simplest level a syllabus can be described as a statement of what is to be learned. It reflects language and linguistic performance".

The difference between syllabus and curriculum is that, curriculum covers all the activities are made by institutions to facilitate teachers and learners, but syllabus is limited to a specific subject of a particular class. Syllabus reflect a view of language and language learning, and curriculum refers to all aspects of the evaluation, implementation, and planning of a pedagogic syllabus (Richards, 2002).

Materials development

Materials development studies the principle and procedures of design, implementation and evaluation of language teaching materials. It is used by teachers for their own classroom. Materials are used to facilitate the learning of a language (Tomlinson, 2001).

Effective educational materials in language teaching are formed by consideration of a number factors such as; teacher, learner, and contextual variables. Teachers' factors include cultural background, language proficiency, training, experience, and their teaching style. Learners' factor such as; language learning needs, their learning style, interest, and motivations. Theory of language and language use, and theory of language learning are two factors which play an important role in determining what the materials will be look like and how they will work (Richards, 2005).

Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)

Principles of communicative language teaching include the aims of language teaching, how students learn a language, types of classroom activities to facilitate learning, roles of teachers and learners in the classroom. According to Richards (2006), the aim of teaching CLT is the teaching of communicative competence. Communicative competence include, using language for different purposes and functions, being able to produce and understand different kinds of texts, and "knowing how to maintain communication despite having limitations in one's language knowledge ".

Classroom activities for facilitating learning in communicative language teaching include pair work activities, role plays, group work activities and project work. …

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