Academic journal article Modern Journal of Language Teaching Methods

The Comparative Effect of Self-Scaffolding and Peer-Scaffolding on Extrovert and Introvert Efl Learners' Reading Comprehension

Academic journal article Modern Journal of Language Teaching Methods

The Comparative Effect of Self-Scaffolding and Peer-Scaffolding on Extrovert and Introvert Efl Learners' Reading Comprehension

Article excerpt

Introduction

Reading comprehension is one of the important aspects in the process of language learning, and as researchers (e.g., Badr El Deen, 2011; Knouzi, Swain, Lapkin, & Brooks, 2010) assert, there are many ways that teachers can teach reading comprehension in order to help them to be better language learners (Swihart, 2009). The inherent nature of human beings indicates that they really like to be good readers. But for reaching this goal they need some assets and strategies which help them get the opportunity to reach their goals. According to Duke (2000), "there is a need to train scaffolding strategies to students' understanding of expository text to build comprehension and engagement in the process of language learning". Despite the fact that, nearly all the attention has been paid to teacher-scaffolding in Iran and as Vygotsky (1978) considers, self-scaffolding and peer-scaffolding have an important role to enhance the process of language learning the present experiment seeks to investigate the effect of self and peerscaffolding on the reading comprehension performance of Iranian EFL learners. In the realm of language learning the role of personality has also been discussed by many researchers.

As one type of personality, extroversion-introversion accounts for a dual aspect of human personality, with extroverts inclining toward outward manifestation and social interaction and introverts leaning toward reserved and solitary behavior. Extroverts have an outgoing personality, seeking to grab the potential opportunities to start conversation with the other. Being so, such a personality may be judged to benefit the learning activities such as language learning. In the same vein, Tanwar and Malhorta (1999) maintain that extroverts are motivated from outside and their attention is directed outward. They are people who appear relaxed, confident, and have trouble understanding life until they have lived it. When they are feeling bad, low in energy, or stressed, they are likely to look outside themselves for relief. In contrast, introverts try to keep away from the public. They keep quiet, showing shyness and distant".

In fact, in relation to what has been discussed about a decline in comprehension strategy instruction (Swihart, 2009) , the researcher aimed to find how much the other scaffolding styles can have an impact on Iranian introverted and extroverted EFL learners' reading comprehension.

Review of the Literature

Extroversion and Introversion

Studies on extroversion and introversion dimension of personality factors were initially introduced by Carl G. Jung (1933). Extroversion and introversion is often thought of as being bipolar, but in reality, it occurs along a continuum which shows one's degree of outgoingness; people who fall at the extremes have clear preferences. Eysenck and Eysenck (1985) characterize a typical extrovert as a person who tends to be sociable, needs people to talk to, craves excitement, takes chances, is easy-going, and optimistic. By contrast, a typical introvert is quiet, retiring, reserved, plans ahead, and dislikes excitement. Rosier (1976) reported a positive relationship between extroversion and English oral proficiency, and Smart, Elton, and Burnett (1970) reported achievements above the predicted grades for introverts. At the same time, there are a number of other studies indicating no correlation between extroversion and language sub-skills such as pronunciation (Suter, 1977), or indeed any of the language measures and five personality indices (Hamayan, 1980).

Ellion (1972) detected an interesting relationship between educational achievement and personality that changes in time. By the age of eight there is statistically positive relationship in children between extroversion and academic attainment. Ten years later the relationship is reversed so that achievement is positively related to introversion. There is evidence that introversion in girls proves beneficial quite early in secondary life. …

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