Academic journal article Modern Journal of Language Teaching Methods

The Impact of Logical Intelligence on Iranian Advanced Efl Learners' Paragraph Writing Ability across Gender

Academic journal article Modern Journal of Language Teaching Methods

The Impact of Logical Intelligence on Iranian Advanced Efl Learners' Paragraph Writing Ability across Gender

Article excerpt

1.Introduction

Every society recognizes that people are different. In education, this thought is taken one step further to acknowledge that everyone learns differently. This fact becomes important both inside and outside the classroom because recognizing that students learn differently and modifying curriculum and instruction to better enhance learning opportunities will inevitably assist in students' success (Naseri and Nejad Ansari, 2013). Before the 1970's and 1980's researchers did not actively investigate how people, more specifically students, learn. In1983, Howard Gardner developed a model of teaching that revolves around the differing potential each student has instilled inside of them, called Multiple Intelligences Theory (MIT). His theory classifies human intellectual competencies in an extraordinarily new way, with more specific criteria than the traditional choice between ''verbal" or "mathematical" (Hyun, 2000). It appeals to many different kinds of minds, and involves the idea of intelligence rather than aptitude or ability. MI theory encourages educators to ask not how smart a child is, but rather in what ways are they smart (Rettig, 2005).

Despite the fact that all four language capabilities are significant in learning development, writing performance is the single ability that has the chance for being measured systematically. Furthermore, writing performance is an ability which is observable and its information is usually simply collectable. Moreover, writing performance is a talent which students have better control on it and also they have the chance of monitoring themselves and retaining their knowledge during their performance (Krashen, 1981).

Considering writing as a mix of some distinct human capacities, Gardner suggests some valuable descriptions of what some of those may be. It is obvious that we cannot guarantee a good writing by increasing the amount of anything as well as the number of "intelligences". According to Grow (1990), linguistic, the logical-mathematical, and the two personal intelligences, are four of Gardner's intelligences that are clearly related to writing. Also in their research, Ahmadian and Hosseini (2012) emphasized that linguistic and interpersonal intelligences positively correlate with writing ability. Therefore by proving multiple intelligences' positive link with students' writing skill, there can be a new tendency in language teaching, especially teaching writing in order to develop students' writing skill by paying attention to students' differences. (Sajjadi Rad, Khojaste and Kafipour, 2014).

2.Review of the Related Literature

2.1 Multiple Intelligence and L2 learning

Increasing popularity of English as an international language calls for innovative approaches in English language teaching classroom. It is no longer appropriate to teach all students with a cookie-cutter formula. Diversity of learners and their unique needs call for implementation of MIT to the language classroom (Dastgoshadeh&Jalilzadeh, 2011).

According to Maftoon and NajafiSarem (2012) quoted from Ellis (1985) second language (L2) learners are different. They learn with different speed and different results. There are many explanations for that issue. The general factors that influence second language learning are: age, aptitude and intelligence, cognitive style, attitudes, motivation and personality. In recent years, there has been a substantial amount of interest in individual differences among foreign language learners. Although there are many ways in which learners can vary, intelligence is often thought to be one of the most significant predictors of language learning success.

Gardner's (1983, 1999) broad model/theory of intelligence, labeled as Multiple Intelligence(s) (MI), views intelligence as a combination of different components. In this view, intelligence is "the ability to solve problems, or to create products, that are valued within one or more cultural settings" (Gardner, 2011). …

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