Academic journal article Modern Journal of Language Teaching Methods

The Analysis of Literature Review Section of Academic Research Articles by Iranian Writers: Citation Analysis

Academic journal article Modern Journal of Language Teaching Methods

The Analysis of Literature Review Section of Academic Research Articles by Iranian Writers: Citation Analysis

Article excerpt

Introduction

Academic writing is not "an objective, faceless, and impersonal form of discourse" (Hyland , 2005, p. 173), but rather "academic writing functions to shape information for the needs of an audience, accomplish a writer's own rhetorical purposes, and establishes the author within a discipline and wider context" (Hyland & Salager-Meyer, 2009, p.326). According to Swales (1987) the research article is a textual product with a regularized microstructure and with rhetoric that follows identifiable role and varies across field of studies in terms of its conventionality and standardization. Moreover, academics are required to acknowledge the previous studies while presenting their own work in order to gain acceptance of readers (Nicolaison, 2007). According to Hyland (1999), making reference to prior literature or citation has a rhetorical function in construction of factual knowledge that helps academics not only to establish a narrative context for their researches but also to integrate new claims into pervious arguments. Citation analysis is espoused as a distinctive discipline by Swales (1986). He argues that procedures for theory of citing should be based on sociology, social psychology and information science (Swales,1986). Swales (1990) draws a formal distinction between integral and non- integral citation forms. Based on his category, the integral citation is syntactically part of the sentence and plays an explicit grammatical role within a sentence while non- integral citation is parenthetical expression with no grammatical role in sentences ( as cited in Thompson & Tribble, 2001; White, 2004). Later, classification of citation types expanded by Hawes and Thomas (1997), Hyland (1999), and Thompson and Tribble (2001). Hyland (1999) notes that citation is contextual-embedded and is related to community norms of effective arguments. He also emphasizes the importance of strategic manipulation of different rhetorical and interactive features in success of academic writers.

In addition to the development of citation analysis theories and classification, discourse analysts have also evaluated citing behavior of writers based on evaluation of verbs which are frequently used in the cited sentences (e.g., Swales ,1986; Thompson & Ye,1991; Hyland, 1999, 2002). Despite the importance of citation in academic research articles, most non-native academic writers do not know how to cite and how to choose appropriate reporting verbs in order to make their research persuasive and credible. In addition, most of the analysts have focused on either comparison of citing behaviors of the native writers to those of the non- native writers or variation of citing practices across the different disciplines (e.g., Hyland, 1999; Thompson & Tribble,2001; Thomas & Hawes,1994; Thomas & Hawes,1997; Hyland & Salager-Meyer, 2009). Moreover, the great deal of research on evaluation of reporting verbs have been concerned with investigation of similarities and differences in use of reporting verbs in academic papers by native and non-native writers (e.g., Mannan & Noor ,2013; Bayyurt & Salahettin, 2015; Bloch,2010; Dancisinova, 2011). This study seeks to explore possible similarities and differences in citation types and reporting verbs employed in academic texts written in Persian and English in order to determine the extent to which the academic writers are obligated to cite appropriately while citing in first and second language.

Literature Review

Writing is not a soliloquizing monologue that emancipates writers from interaction with readers, but rather it is a social act in which writer seeks to establish an appropriate relationship with readers in order to enable them to internalize his or her message (Rosen, 1973). Approaches to academic writing fall into two categories. The first approach or cognitive approach describes academic writing as set of practices that must be required, but the second one is a social view and claims that these practices are socially constructed and are open to change (Ivanic,1998 ). …

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