Academic journal article Modern Journal of Language Teaching Methods

Study of Phrase Errors Committed by Iranian Efl Learners

Academic journal article Modern Journal of Language Teaching Methods

Study of Phrase Errors Committed by Iranian Efl Learners

Article excerpt

1.Introduction

The main aim of this study is to investigate Study of Phrase Errors Committed by Iranian EFL Learners at undergraduate level at Payamnoor University in Bushehr, Iran. Before, inquiring error analysis as a hypothesis in this project. We define phrase as a linguistic item, according to Richards et al (1992)"a phrase is a group of words which form a grammatical unit. A phrase does not contain a finite verb and does not have a subject-predicate structure"(p.53). Crystal (2003) mentioned that phrase is used in grammatical analysis to refer to a single element of structure typically containing more than one word, and lacking the subject-predicate structure typical of clauses. However, phrases are categorized based on verb phrase, noun phrase, adjective phrase and adverb phrase in English language. Noun phrase or NP is consisting of a single word or group of words with a noun or pronoun as a head. Langacker (1982, p. 66) mentioned that "a noun phrase is composed of three parts: a head, pre-modifier and post modifier". Thus, A pre-modifier usually occurs before the head and post-modifier comes after the head. A noun phrase functions as subject, object or prepositional object. Murthy (1998) argued that adjective phrase is a group of words which does the work of an adjective is called an adjective phrase. He added that adverb phrase is also is a group of words which does the work of an adverb is called an adverb phrase. Richards et al (1992, P. 399) indicated that "verb phrase is the part of a sentence which contains the main verb and also may object (s), complement(s) and adverbial(s)".

Therefore, phrase is the part of writing that is why; we discuss writing briefly in this paragraph. "the learning of writing is one of the most important skills that second language learners need to develop their ability to communicate ideas and information effectively in target language" (Khansir 2012a, p. 282). However, Learning to writing in target language is a very complex task in general and learning to phrase structure is also is not easy for English foreign learners to do this for themselves. It is important to remember that English language learners need to be aware of phrase rules that are different; language teachers should consider what types of exercises and activities can be helpful.

Let us begin by considering the definition of language error and then directly discuss error analysis and contrastive analysis. ( Khansir 2012b,p.1029) mentioned that "error Analysis is a type of linguistic analysis that focuses on the errors learners make. It consists of a comparison between the errors made in the target language and that target language itself. Error analysis emphasizes the significance of learners' errors in second language." However, the history of language errors come back to applied linguistics in 1940s and when C. C. Fries was the first linguist started to the study of contrastive linguistics in 1945. Then this assumption was taken up by the other linguist 'Robert Lado' more than ten years later in his book, "Linguistic Across Cultures"(1957) in which the theoretical foundation of C.A was laid down. Corder was the other linguist of applied linguistics as the father of error analysis said that interference of mother tongue as the main cause of language errors by contrastive analysis approach is only one of the causes (sources) of language errors. Corder (1967) argued that errors are significance to the process of language learning. He added that they are significant in three different ways first to the teacher, in that they tell him /her, if he/she undertakes a systematic analysis, how far towards the goal the learner has progressed and, consequently, what remains for him/her to learn. Second, they provide to the researcher evidence of how language is learnt or acquired, what strategies or procedures the learner is employing in his/her discovery of the language. Thirdly, they are important and indispensable to the learner himself / herself because an error is taken to show that it is wrongly learnt. …

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