Academic journal article Modern Journal of Language Teaching Methods

Investigating the Effectiveness of Parents' Training with Adler's Approach on Reduction of Impulsiveness and Improving Social Problems Solving Skills in Students Afflicted with Mathematical Disorder

Academic journal article Modern Journal of Language Teaching Methods

Investigating the Effectiveness of Parents' Training with Adler's Approach on Reduction of Impulsiveness and Improving Social Problems Solving Skills in Students Afflicted with Mathematical Disorder

Article excerpt

Introduction

Based on the definition of individuals with disabilities education act, learning disability is a disorder in one or several basic psychological procedures which include comprehension of language or its application. This disorder is manifested in the form of disability in listening, thinking, speaking, reading, writing, or mathematical calculations. However, it does not include those learning problems caused as the result of visual, audio, or motor disabilities, mental retardation, emotional disorders, environmental, cultural or economical inappropriate conditions (Mcquillan, Coleman, Tucker & Thompson, 2011). The prevalence level of mathematical disability has been estimated between 5 to 8 percent (Shalev, Rauerbach, Manor & GrossTsur, 2000, Ramaa & Gowramma, 2002, Hale, Fiorello, Bertin & Sherman, 2003). In the cognitive patterns of mathematical problem solving proposed by Mantago (2007), solving mathematical problems is considered to be a complex interplay between cognitive, hyper-cognitive, emotional and motivational components (Montaco, 2010; Stacy, 2008). Students afflicted with mathematical disability have a lot of problems in different fields such as solving oral problems and the skills associated with them, identifying the obvious information in problems, utilizing self-adjusting and self-observing strategies in the process of doing homework and concentrating attention till the end of homework (Pedrotty, 2010).

Problem solving ability is one of the variables whose investigation in students afflicted with mathematical disorders is of great importance. Problem solving and social problem solving abilities are vital life skills in the contemporary era. This skill plays a vital role in promoting the mental health (Tissdelle & Lawrence, 1986). Problem solving inabilities are associated with some emotional problems (Chang et al., 2004). The literature of the study has proved a relationship between effective problem solving ability and social and psychological merits (Tisdell and Lawrence, 1986). As a matter of fact, deficiencies in problem solving ability has been reported in disorders such as anxiety (Dugas et al., 1998) and depression (Watkins & Baracaia, 2002). In many definitions, social problem solving is considered to be a purposeful and conscious activity, and also a cognitive, purposeful and effective consequence (Nezu et al., 2005). D, Zurrila et al (2002) developed a pattern of social problem solving which consists of 5 dimensions.

Positive problem orientation and negative problem orientation are among orientation variables and the

remaining 3 dimensions are concerned with problem solving styles and patterns including rational problem solving, impulsivity/carelessness problem solving style, and avoidance problem solving style. Another factor which can influence the educational trend of students with mathematical disorders is impulsiveness. The impulsive behaviors are sometimes referred to as adventuresome behaviors which include a large set of actions upon which little thought has been devoted. They take place instantaneously and immaturely in the absence of an appropriate planning without concentration on a special task and possess high degree of risk and danger (Muller et al., 2001; Waxman, 2011). A review of the previous studies conducted on impulsiveness shows that impulsive behaviors are the main cause of many mental disorders such as hyperactivity/attention deficit, conduct disorder, impulse control disorder, drug abuse, Bulimia, suicidal behavior, personality disorders, and learning disorders (Doran, McCharge & Cohen, 2006; Fossati, Barratt, Borroni, Villa, Grazioli & Maffei, 2007; Ray Li, Chen, Lin & Yang, 2009). Today, impulsiveness is conceptualized in the form of a cognitive dimension, i.e. impulsiveness is accompanied with cognitive disinhibition, the slow and deficit trend of decision making and emotional instabilities (Dawe, Gullo & Loxton, 2012). …

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