Academic journal article Gender & Behaviour

Cross Cultural Dimensions to the Learning and Practice of Learning

Academic journal article Gender & Behaviour

Cross Cultural Dimensions to the Learning and Practice of Learning

Article excerpt

Introduction

Lindorff (2010) argues that cultural differences are unavoidable in our daily lives. In keeping with this, different cultures should be structured in a way that they manifest themselves differently. The different believes that different people have depend on their value systems. In light of this, Hofstede (1983) defines value as organisation's choices, needs and rules that provide the criteria for the actions of its members. It is in this vein that Glisson and James (2002) argue that value is the deeper and or more invisible organisational culture comprising; behaviours, beliefs and traditions that characterise each organisation's different forms of socialisation. Based on this debate, all schools have a code of conduct that should be observed by its stakeholders. Thus, one would not expect any universality in these codes of conduct. The code of conduct is at the core of what one refers to as value. Thus, different schools accept and tolerate behaviours that might not be accepted by the next school. Based on this, this chapter attempts to caution student

Different kinds of Conflicts

In view of the above, there are three principal conflict levels suggested by Fischer, Ferreira, Assmar, Baris, Berberoglu, Wong, Hassan, Hanke and Boer (2014) which are:

I. Conflict of interest: This occurs when the interest of one person and that of the other members of a school come to clash. In such situations, the interest of the teachers not to go into the classrooms with preconceived ideologies on how they expect the learners to behave. Instead, they should be willing to learn how this schools function in order to avoiding stepping on others feet.

In light of the above, organisational activities are usually influenced by their environmental conditions which can evolve and be changed more easily than values which appear more conservative to influence. The mastering of organisational ways of operating, usually occur through socialisation by which new members learn to live and act within their new found environments (Foncha, 2013). Based on this, we hasten to suggest that values mould a culture and this influences the interactants through their adherence to the daily practices. Thus it becomes obvious that the different schools experience different kinds of conflicts between their different components since these different components use different materials or resources to achieve the different gains.

employee appears to be in sharp contrast with the productivity levels of the organization. For example, if the failure rate for a particular class is high, the teacher would have his own reasons for such results which would definitely be in conflict with the expectations of the learners and management. In this case, the teacher wants the learners to be conversant with the content taught but learners and management are only interested in positive results

II. Conflict of control: Focuses on diversity and the need for team work with the ultimate aim of making these different systems to function in harmony. In such situations, each stakeholder needs to respect and be respected in order to put in their best (Fischer et al., 2014: 109). It should be noted that there are two types of organizations which are either mechanistic or organic in nature. Mechanistic organizations function within clear rules and procedures. In these cases, performances are guided by well set rules with a more central decision making body like in the schools. On the other hand, organic organizations are characterized by flexible conditions and so the individuals concerned are at liberty to exercise autonomy. The later seemingly cannot function well in schools.

III. Conflict of innovative practices: Innovative practices refer to a situation where there is improvement to the existing condition for better productivity. "[I]t strives towards maintaining the status-quo versus proactive change and innovation" (Fischer et al. …

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