Academic journal article The Journal of Special Education and Rehabilitation

Rapid Naming in Children with Specific Language Impairment and in Children with Typical Language Development

Academic journal article The Journal of Special Education and Rehabilitation

Rapid Naming in Children with Specific Language Impairment and in Children with Typical Language Development

Article excerpt

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Abstract

Aimed at the detailed insight into the phonological ability of Serbian-speaking children of preschool age, with and without language impairment, the ability of rapid naming was examined.

Method: Operationalization of the set goal was carried out by using the Test for evaluating reading and writing pre-skills. In describing and analyzing the obtained data, methods of descriptive and inferential statistics were used.

The sample included 120 subjects of both gender, 40 children diagnosed with specific language impairment (SLI), age from 5,11 to 7 years, and 80 children with typical language development (TLD), age between 5,11 and 7 years, with no statistically significant differences in relation to age and gender of the participants.

Results: Summing up the overall results and achievements of children with SLI and children with TLD, we concluded that there are statistically significant differences in the rapid naming between children with specific language impairment and children with typical language development.

Conclusions: As it is a global trend to work on preventing disorders and obstructions, and phonological skills in this age are a timely indicator of the development of reading and writing skills, the examined children with SLI are at risk for the occurrence of obstructions and disorders in the area of reading and writing abilities.

Keywords: rapid naming, phonological skills, specific language impairment, typical language development

Introduction

The interest of scientists to explore the rapid naming skills comes from the research of reading disorders in people with aphasia, mid- last century (1). It has then been found that the rapidity of naming is associated with the processes of reading, and is now used as an early indicator of predicting reading performance. However, although it has been over forty years (2) since the defining of the entity of rapid (automatized) naming, the relation between rapid naming and reading skills has not yet been clarified.

Rapid naming/speed of access to phonological codes is defined as efficient finding of phonological information (codes) in long-term memory (3). The efficiency of access to phonological representation is associated with a visual symbol, and makes a very important component of basic cognitive skills that will later be included in the process of efficient reading (4). Therefore, the ability of rapid naming is seen as a reflection of the quality of visual-verbal associations (5); however, there is still controversy about observing this ability either as a separate entity or as part of phonological skills.

The ability of rapid naming indicates the speed of phonological processing and access to the lexicon. This process begins with the visual recognition before it accesses the lexicon of the language system. The actual naming process involves a series of stages, from the identification of pictures to the semantic representation of the selected word, then to the phonological level where phonemes are selected, to eventually approaching production (6). Although there is no consensus over the neuro-cognitive processes involved in the ability of rapid naming, basic cognitive processes can be divided into several main stages: perceptual analysis/encoding, recognition, semantic markup and verbal response. The first stage includes simple visual encoding of information, which requires quick analysis of the perceptual characteristics of the object. Object recognition implies quickly matching the visual details of the object with the stored representations of the object, derived from previous experience. The third stage, semantic markup, involves the invocation of semantic association with higher levels of visual representation of the object. Finding semantic representations also includes the linking with phonological linguistic representations (naming). The final step includes the oral production of phonological representations (pronunciation of the name of the object) (7). …

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