Academic journal article Childhood Obesity

Effects of Exercise on Carotid Arterial Wall Thickness in Obese Pediatric Populations: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Academic journal article Childhood Obesity

Effects of Exercise on Carotid Arterial Wall Thickness in Obese Pediatric Populations: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Article excerpt

[Author Affiliation]

Antonio García-Hermoso. 1 Laboratorio de Ciencias de la Actividad Física, el Deporte y la Salud, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH, Santiago, Chile.

Katherine González-Ruiz. 2 Centro de Estudios para la Medición de la Actividad Física «CEMA», Escuela de Medicina y Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad del Rosario, Bogotá, Colombia.

Hector Reynaldo Triana-Reina. 3 Grupo GICAEDS, Facultad de Cultura Física, Deporte y Recreación, Universidad Santo Tomás, Bogotá, Colombia.

Jordi Olloquequi. 4 Instituto de Ciencias Biomédicas, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma de Chile, Talca, Chile.

Robinson Ramírez-Vélez. 2 Centro de Estudios para la Medición de la Actividad Física «CEMA», Escuela de Medicina y Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad del Rosario, Bogotá, Colombia.

Address correspondence to: Antonio García-Hermoso, PhD, Laboratorio de Ciencias de la Actividad Física, el Deporte y la Salud, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH, Avenida Libertador Bernardo O'Higgins n° 3363, Estación Central, Santiago 9160000, Chile, E-mail: antonio.garcia.h@usach.cl

Introduction

Childhood overweight and obesity represent a growing health concern in modern-day society.1 Excess adiposity and particularly abdominal obesity are linked to raised lipid metabolism and the risk of developing insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome, constituting the basis of impaired vascular function.2 Impaired vascular function can begin in early life, with impairment of endothelial function a likely precipitating event, followed by gradual remodeling of the arterial wall.3,4 Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is a validated surrogate marker that has been associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis in men and women.5

Carotid IMT is 10%-23% mm lower among physically active individuals compared with their inactive peers.6 Despite consistent evidence from cross-sectional studies indicating a positive association between sedentary behavior and carotid IMT,7 results of intervention studies have not yielded consistent evidence that exercise training can effectively lower carotid IMT. Fewer than half of the exercise training interventions examining this relationship produced significant improvements in carotid IMT,8-13 and the mixed results highlight uncertainty about the ability of physical exercise alone to lower carotid IMT independently.14 Regular exercise can potentially modify metabolic hormones and is considered an important treatment of endothelial function and obesity-related conditions.15 In 2016, Cayres et al.16 published a thorough narrative review of epidemiological studies attempting to examine the effect of exercise training on carotid IMT in children and adolescents and concluded that improvement in carotid IMT occurred following exercise training. However, a number of milestone publications have suggested that exercise training can lower carotid IMT only when accompanied by a decrease in body weight and BMI,17 again yielding inconsistent and inconclusive results regarding the role of exercise in reducing carotid IMT.

Despite the prevalence of obesity and the multiple position stands promoting exercise for the treatment of obesity and vascular function, a meta-analytic approach has not previously been used to examine the effects in the obesity pediatric population. However, several studies also show inconsistent results particularly with respect to children and adolescents, where data are scarce. Because of the heterogeneity between studies in terms of results, we used a meta-analytic approach to determine the effectiveness of exercise interventions on carotid IMT in overweight and obese youth. Therefore, the primary aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to expand on the current body of literature by providing a quantitative estimate of the change in carotid IMT following exercise training as well as to provide an exploratory analysis of potential moderators associated with variation in response to an exercise training intervention in overweight and obese youth. …

Search by... Author
Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

Oops!

An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.