Academic journal article Indian Journal of Positive Psychology

Occupational Stress as a Function of Type of School and Gender

Academic journal article Indian Journal of Positive Psychology

Occupational Stress as a Function of Type of School and Gender

Article excerpt

Occupational stress is the inability to cope with the pressures in ajob (Rees, 1997). It is a mental and physical condition which affects an individual's creativeness, effectiveness, personal health and quality of occupation (Cornish & Swindle, 1994). Teacher stress is a specific type of occupational stress. Occupational stress is the experience by a teacher of unpleasant emotions such as anger, tension, frustration and depression resulting from aspects of his/her work as a teacher (Kyriacou, 1987). Overall, teachers manifesting high levels of stress also show signs of high levels of psychological distress, generally demonstrated by high anxiety and low psychological well-being, as well as decreased job satisfaction that is mental ill-health, burnout and dissatisfaction of job among the teachers (Traverse & Cooper, 1996).

Each profession causes a specific level of stress. However, teaching is among the professions that cause more stress compared to other professions (Hargreaves, 1999; Pithers, 1995). Stress affects both the teacher and the learners in the teaching process (Forlin, Douglas, & Hattie, 1996). Kyriacou (1987) who has carried out varies studies on teacher stress, described teacher stress as the experiencing of unpleasant feelings such as depression, anger, worry, irritableness and tension which are formed as a result of working as a teacher. Stress sources of teachers may be summarized as low motivation in students, discipline problems, the pressure of time and the work load, being assessed by, colleague relationship, conflict and indefiniteness of roles, and self-respect, bad working conditions students' discipline problems, the inadequate support of colleagues, family and friends (Kyriacou, 2001; Detert, Derosia, Caravella, & Duquette, 2006). In addition, students' being late to school, not doing homework, their failure and students' may cause stress in teachers (Joseph, 2000; Adams, 2001). It is essential for educational organizations to study and manage rationalistically the stress sources of teachers who have the important duty of educating individuals. After scanning of relevant research literature, it is found that this is dearth of studies in which occupational stress of teachers working in residential and non-residential schools are conducted that to under Indian conditions. It was also found that gender as an independent variable has not been considered as a factor affecting the occupational stress of teachers. So, it is considered appropriate to find out the main and interactional effect of type of schools and gender on occupational stress of teachers.

Research design

In the present study, a 2X2 factorial design has been employed which means that the design used 2 factors or independent variables, viz. type of school and gender were to be varied at two levels to study their main and interaction effects on dependent variable, i.e., type of school and gender.



In the present study stratified random sampling technique was employed to meet the requirement of 120 subjects distributed over 2x2 cell of factorial design. To select homogeneous and unbiased sample in the present study, the sample has been drawn from the population of teachers of schools of Chhattisgarh. The age group for the sample taken into consideration is from 30 to 45 years. In this study we have 2x2 or 4strata viz. Residential School and Male Teachers; Residential School and Female Teachers; Non-residential School and Male Teachers; Non-residential school and Female Teachers. In present study, 2x2 factorial design having at least 30 subjects in each cell. Atotal number of 120 subjects were randomly drawn following the stratified random sampling technique.


Occupational Stress Index (Shrivastava & Singh, 1984): To measure the dependent variable, i.e., occupational stress. The occupational stress index (OSI) constructed and standardized by Shrivastava and Singh (1984) was used. …

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