Academic journal article Journal of Behavioral and Applied Management

The Effects of Two-Source Transformational Leadership on Student Outcomes of Service-Learning Projects

Academic journal article Journal of Behavioral and Applied Management

The Effects of Two-Source Transformational Leadership on Student Outcomes of Service-Learning Projects

Article excerpt

Introduction

A growing number of colleges and universities are introducing service-learning (SL) as a pedagogical strategy to encourage student community involvement and improve student learning. SL is "a teaching and learning approach that integrates community service with academic study to enrich learning, teach civic responsibility, and strengthen communities" (National Commission on Service-Learning, 2002). SL can have significant academic, civic, and personal influences on students by improving performance in the classroom (Stage, 2004), increasing community involvement (Celio, Durlak, & Dymnicki, 2011), and fostering civic responsibility (Smith, 2008), putting theoretical knowledge to practice (Mobley, 2007) and producing personally meaningful experiences for participants' development (Cashman & Seifer, 2008). As of 2015, 1100 colleges and universities are members of Campus Compact, the only national coalition of colleges and universities dedicated to promoting community service, civic engagement, and SL in higher education. This represents 1.8 million students investing more that 6.6 million hours to improve communities. According to the 2014 Annual Member Survey of Campus Compact, from 2013 to 2014, 1.4 million students engaged in SL, spending, on average, 3.5 hours per week on community work for a total of 155 million hours. This generated a $3.5 billion in value. In comparison, in 2000, Campus Compact comprised 689 members, and the total value of service contributed to communities by students was $279 million.

SL is a promising instructional method in which there has been growing interest, but it must be conducted well to produce positive student outcomes (Billig, 2010). The influence of leadership on student class outcomes has become an important topic of research (Bolkan, Goodboy, & Griffin, 2011). Benefits to student learning are contingent on behaviors from leaders such as principals, administrators, and teachers. The issue of leadership during execution of SL, however, has not been studied. Historically, research on SL leadership has had a narrow focus. Some scholars examine SL's influence on development of sound leadership qualities in those engaging in SL (Pless, Maak, & Stahl, 2011; Foli, Braswell, Kirkpatrick, & Lim, 2014), and others assess the effects of education administrators' leadership on student outcomes (AligMielcarek & Hoy, 2005; Robinson Lloyd, & Rowe, 2008). Co-leadership models in which a second-in-command (Heenan & Bennis, 1999; Paré, Menzies, Filion, & Brenner, 2008) or equally-ranked individual (de Voogt, 2006; Bober & Bourgeois, 2016) partner with the prominent leader in their organization have also emerged as a criticism to the single-leader view. In the education community, such models of dual leadership have appeared in the form of coprincipal leadership (Eckman, 2006), and principal and teacher shared leadership (Boberg & Bourgeois, 2016). Since "the closer educational leaders get to the core business of teaching and learning, the more likely they are to have a positive impact on students' outcomes" (Robinson et al., 2008, p. 664), lack of studies that investigate the effects of instructor and community partners' dual leadership on student outcomes during SL is surprising.

Leadership is among the most popular topics studied in business management and organizations, but a universal definition of the concept has not yet emerged. It is a construct linked originally to Machiavellian style coercion based on a need to use force to hold personal power and maintain public order. Later developments described leader-follower relationships as a social influence process (Schriesheim, Castro, Xiaohua, & DeChruch, 2006). Currently, leadership is viewed as consulting and shared decision-making (Bass & Bass, 2008). In addition to business organizations, the importance of leadership has been endorsed at various other levels, including government, community, and colleges and universities through creation of plans such as the Federal Government Leadership Programs and The Community Leadership Association. …

Search by... Author
Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

Oops!

An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.